Turtles. In what advantages of conservatism?of “Festina Lente“ - “Hurry slowly“, - the famous Florentine politician, the banker and the merchant Cosimo Medici traced on the emblem and supported this wise saying with drawing of a turtle with a sail on a back. However, to the real turtles sail to anything. And without sail they it is successful - slowly and surely - ply through time and space of already kind 200 million years.
of the Turtle are the only survived representatives anapsid - the most ancient group of reptiles. Though the first finds of fossil turtles are dated the top Triassic, externally they are already so recognized that this group was created, probably, even earlier - in the Permian Period of the Paleozoic. So, turtle eyes observed both great Perm extinction, and death of dinosaurs, and blossoming of mammals, and domination of a human civilization.
G. Melville: “They were unlike
on terrestrial beings... Heavy, as safes, with an enormous armor with hollows, as on a fighting board... These mystical creations it seems, again crept out outside from - under foundations of the world... Their age shakes imagination. Think of their unapproachable live armor. What other being has such fortress to resist to attack of time?“
turtles do not hurry to Live too therefore be able to speak they - it would be the best historians of this world. Somewhere in 1960 - x years in mass media information that in a zoo the legendary turtle presented still to the famous seafarer James Cook died wandered. And on Galapagos Islands, perhaps, representatives of elephant turtles whose backs Charles Darwin rode still wander. 100 - 150 years of life - for overland turtles quite achievable term.
H. Darwin “Travel of the naturalist round the world by the ship “Beagle“:
“To me constantly it gave pleasure to b to overtake
some of these huge monsters, quietly striding on the road: while I passed by, it pulled in the head and legs, and, letting out the low whistling sound, hard fell, precisely struck to death. Quite often I climbed up to them a back, and after I several times slightly struck back part of their board, they rose and crept away, but it was already difficult for me to keep balance“.
the Turtle - to the boyfriend:
- I cannot today... At me century began...
From a song turtle VIA GRA: If somewhere to you have some
for three hundred... this group of reptiles reached
of Evolutionary success and longevity in quite simple way - having just chained from head to foot in armor.
However, to get an armor, these reptiles strongly “spoiled“ the skeleton. The backbone was bent, edges dispersed in the parties, having become wide and flat, and on this framework horn plates strongly accrued. The top part of turtle “lodge“ scientists call a carapace, and the lower part of plates protecting a belly - a plastron.
On it “deformation“ of a skeleton did not end. It was necessary to make something with clavicles and shovels that though as - nibud to move. As a result all humeral belt moved in a thorax. And as the thorax could not extend, breath had to be carried out only by means of the lateral muscles working like bellows.
Remained to decide still how to hide the head.
K. Vonnegut “Cradle for a cat“:
“All of us three sat in the car, looking as Angela twisted the handle until then until the accumulator sat down. And here the father started talking. You know what he told? “Interestingly, about turtles“. Angela asked it: “And what it is interesting to you about turtles?“ And he told: “When they pull in the head, their backbone is reduced or curved?“... After conversation on turtles the father so was fond of them that he ceased to work on an atomic bomb“. by
Actually bends not a backbone, but a neck. However, at different turtles it occurs differently. There are turtles bokosheyny, bending a neck in the horizontal plane, and is skrytosheyny, bending in vertical.
the Turtle whom the wasp stung in a nose, speaks:
- Here lines, it is necessary to spend the night on the street again!
By the way, not all turtles are capable to hide the head completely. And at a turtle with a large head it under an armor at all is not located (as well as large sharp-clawed paws) therefore all speakers of part of a body at it are providently covered with strong guards.
The head of a kaymanovy turtle does not hold up to the end under an armor also. But, as it is sung in the song, “you do not can to touch it“. Not pulled in head differs excessive kusachestyyu, and her owner - weak nerves and the increased aggression. This fresh-water American turtle - the real predator capable to regale not only a small fish, but also gooses, snakes, muskrats. And to the person who disturbed it can snip off easily a strong beak a finger.
... Suddenly on legs the stone swelled up
I grasped them by legs. they screamed
I with fear:
- It is ChE!
Is the GROIN!
It is CHECHER!
When the part of turtles decided to develop the sea, many of achievements of “ancestors“ were excessive in the new environment. As a result the armor of sea turtles was considerably facilitated, and in it they ceased to pull in the head. But mobility increased. Paws turned into flippers by means of which sea turtles literally “fly“ in water (i.e. move paws up - down while fresh-water just row with the).
the turtle by the sea, and on her back - a snake Floats. Floats and thinks: “Eh, to dump it and it is impossible - will bite“.
The snake sits on a back at a turtle and thinks: “To bite it and it is impossible - will dump“.
So we will drink for female friendship - the strongest thing in the world!
also turtles spineless - absolutely deprived of horn guards Are. All bequeathed ancestors the bone framework is covered at them with an ordinary soft thin skin. At a sea leathery turtle the armor was reduced and turned into the connected bone plates not connected with a skeleton at all.
Protective tricks are combined at turtles with amazing survivability. They are capable to maintain polutoragodovy hunger strikes, and even with the torn-off head can move more than a week.
“Most of people heartlessly concern to turtles, turtle heart fights for a long time after the animal is killed and will cut on pieces“.
Submariners from them at all remarkable. Water turtles emerge behind air only each 15 - 20 minutes. And when harmful scientists did not allow to emerge to them, freely did without oxygen several hours. It turned out that many water activities have confidential type of breath: their throat covered with fibers and nipples is capable to absorb oxygen directly from water.
Unfortunately, defensors of turtles were designed for normal animals, but not on biped the gourmets having reason...
How turtles breed, and they are eaten, we will talk in the following article...