Flowers of the leaving summer - dahlias. What secrets they keep?in full strength will come to the flower arena magnificent and magnificent flowers, natives of South America Soon - dahlias. Gardeners of all countries recognize a dahlia as surprisingly various and bright flower: effective large inflorescences are painted in everything, except blue, a color and rainbow shades. In the homeland, in Mexico, the dahlia was built in the status of a national flower.
On the European continent this surprising plant got in 1784 when two travelers returned to Spain from a trip across Mexico. They presented in gift to the monarch the unknown tubers, juicy, similar to potatoes, in Europe of a plant. The court gardener landed them in a palace garden Eskurial. In the fall on powerful plants large red flowers revealed. They very much were pleasant to the monarch and he ordered to hold unknown to all a new plant. The royal botanist described it and named Dalia in honor of the botanist Dahl.
In 1805 the same tubers were brought from America by the German scientist Gumbold, the plant was called a dahlia in honor of the St. Petersburg academician Georgi. So the secret of the Spanish monarch revealed and the magnificent flower began to win gardens of Europe.
Presently in the homeland - in Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, dahlias enjoy invariable love. The largest collection of these flowers on the Atlantic coast is in gardens of the famous gardener Paul Kallakhen. He was a member of society of fans of dahlias. After his death members of this society continue to look after a garden and carry out a lot of work on preservation and distribution of these plants.
Aztecs called a dahlia a water tube. Stalks at a plant hollow, treelike versions reach height of six meters. In such peculiar capacities Indians carried water from sources. Roots used on a forage to cattle, applied powder from roots to treatment of diseases of a bladder.
This wonderful flower because of people was soiled by human blood. In one of ancient Indian myths it is told about the god of war who was given birth by a snake. He was born with a sword in the form of a leaf of an agave and a red flower in a hand. The scarlet dahlia gave it blood lust. Since then Aztecs had a cruel custom - to sacrifice to the god of war human hearts which were put on the stone surrounded with dahlias. These bloody sacrifices stopped only with arrival on the continent of Spaniards.
At wild-growing dahlias of an inflorescence are similar to a sunflower: on their edges reed flowers, and in the center - the tubular and small, bearing fruits settle down. In gardens such types meet very seldom. Bulk of dahlias of our gardens - result of selection works in which median flowers are turned into not fructifying reed.
This plant received special popularity in the European gardens after grades with terry inflorescences of a various form and coloring were removed. Today more than 12 thousand grades of dahlias are known.
Dahlias are rather unpretentious, even the beginning flower growers successfully will cope with their cultivation. From seeds it is possible to grow up the one-year dahlias known under the name “Cheerful Children“. Really, when these lovely smiling flowers blossom, it is impossible to look without smile at them.
Dahlias love the sun and moisture. For landing it is necessary to pick up the spacious solar site protected from cold winds. In shady places it is not necessary to land them: plants will be extended and can not blossom, or blossoming will be poor. To receive the beautiful blossoming bush, it is necessary to leave on it 2 - 3 strong escapes, to regularly break out part of lateral escapes and buds. Also it is necessary to delete in due time withering inflorescences.
The most difficult moment in cultivation of dahlias - storage of tubers. It is necessary to dig out them with arrival of frosts, too early it is not necessary to dig out that tubers managed to ripen.
At excavation leave 10 - 15 cm of a trunk, further tubers should be cleared carefully of the earth, to dry, wash out in potassium permanganate solution, again to dry. To store 60 - 70% at a temperature of 3 - 10 degrees and humidity of air. It is good to pour tubers coniferous sawdust, then they are disinfected by coniferous phytoncides and hold moisture, do not dry up. It is possible to speak about ways of storage of tubers and cultivation of dahlias long, each flower grower has secrets.
Even those fans of flowers which have no suitable place for storage - a cellar, not heated room can grow up several bushes, and to store tubers in the refrigerator.
Flowers of the leaving summer by all means will thank you for care and efforts the magnificent blossoming which will continue to the first frosts.