Balakhna lace: in what its uniqueness?the Nizhny Novgorod Region are famous for many national crafts. They are famous far outside Russia. The city of Balakhna became the center of the most different crafts, but really world fame to it was brought by lace. It is not similar to what is spun in other regions. To be convinced of it, it is enough to see an air silk setochka with a scattering of fantastic flowers and fancy leaves. History at trade too very interesting.
the Alloy of traditions
In edge economy the large role was played by the Makaryevsky fair. Quite often there samples of the European lace were brought. In the same place it was possible to get suitable threads. It promoted distribution of a kruzhevopleteniye in those regions. The foundation to trade was laid in the last decades the 17th century. Originally lace trudged on the European drawings.
In the 18-19th centuries a half of the female population of Balakhna was engaged in this distinguished needlework. Original style was formed gradually. In it the European and Russian motives fancifully merged - it became one of its bright features. Finally trade developed in the 19th century. Both simple linen lace, and very refined - was made of thin silk threads.
The most different products - scarfs, kerchiefs, belts, collars Vypletatsya. Skilled workers carried out Catherine II`s orders. Also other interesting fact is known: the Balakhna laces decorated a wedding dress of the Queen Victoria. Up to now names of remarkable skilled workers remained. Among them - Ekaterina Konstantinovna Sokolova, Anna Pavlovna Furina, Efaniya Alekseevna Anokhina, Maria Mikhaelovna Shchugayeva.
On the way to revival
at the beginning of the 20th century trade dies away. High cost of silk threads became one of the reasons. Attempts of preservation of traditions were made - for this purpose in 1912 the school of lace makers was created. It existed only three years. Already in the second half of the 20th century the shop of a kruzhevopleteniye was open - it became branch of Gorodetsky strochevyshivalny factory. The oldest skilled workers shared craft secrets. The shop functioned from 1968 to 1994.
Now the master Lidiya Fyodorovna Vasilyeva conducts occupations at correctional school. Graduates quite often become professional lace makers. Besides, the workshop where Galina Aleksandrovna Kotova teaches works. There persons interested can master this art. The received skills allow to spin lace both for themselves, and for sale. Thanks to diligence of enthusiasts revival of traditions of the well-known trade became possible.
Wattled melodiesare constructed by
of Composition very rhythmically, in them some musicality is felt. Branches, flowers, the stylized oak leaves, geometrical figures look extremely elegantly. Bouquets in vases and grape clusters are very characteristic of lace from Balakhna too. It is possible to meet also “cucumbers“ - tear-shaped figures from which blows as east color.
The secret of the Balakhna lace consists in multipair technology of weaving. Masterly possession of it allows to create complex compositions. In work many couples of koklyushka are at the same time used - their number can reach several hundred. At first it is created rolling pins - technical drawing. It is fixed on the roller. Threads are selected, are reeled up on koklyushka. Further laborious work begins.
the Balakhna lace - tselnopletyony: the background and drawing vypletatsya at the same time. It is one of features of trade. As a background serve tulle lattices - grids - easy and transparent. There are about ten options of their weaving. On a tulle lattice various patterns settle down. As a contour for them serves the thick thread. It outlines each detail as though a pencil.
Most often in work silk threads are used - lace from them seems almost air. Cotton and lyon also find application though are popular less. It is interesting that the most part of products is made of black threads. Beige and white are used less often. Black laces look unusually graceful. They attract with some special mysteriousness.
Now the Museum of lace of the Balakhna museum historian - an art complex works. There about 500 unique exhibits are presented. Products, surprising on beauty, continue to be created by hands of remarkable skilled workers. Traditions of trade remain. Therefore it is possible to expect new revelations - very important that lacy patterns became the bridge between the past and future.