How the Soviet cargo main locomotive outstripped the time? The engine of the FDseries Already by the end of the first five-years period it became clear that the country is in great need in the powerful and high-speed locomotive capable to cope with considerably the increased goods turnover. And on March 10, 1931 the National Commissariat of Means of Communication (NCMC) gives central branch according to plan - to technical management (TsPTU NKPS) a task for carrying out the technician - economic calculations which have to determine key parameters of future engine.
the Main objective - to increase carrying ability of the cargo locomotive as due to increase of its weight and, respectively, a power, and by increase in technical speed. At the same time special emphasis was placed on the second condition.
In addition when calculating it was necessary to consider two restrictive factors:
1. As transition to the automatic coupling device of the locomotive with cars and the last among themselves was only planned somewhere in the near future, force of draft of the engine should not have exceeded strength of a mechanical hitch - a screw coupler.
2. The existing, not reconstructed top structure of a way (rails and cross ties) has to maintain the weight of the new engine.
Calculations of TsPTU NKPS and the outline sketch of the engine executed on their basis were transferred on May 1, 1931 for design engineering in Central lokomotivno - design bureau of Narkomat of the heavy industry (TsLPB NKTP), and on October 31 the first Soviet cargo main engine of a series FD (Felix Dzerzhinsky) was already exposed on a public inspection at a garden “A name 1 - guo Mai“, in the center of Voroshilovgrad (nowadays Luhansk) at which engine-building plant it was made.
It is very heavy to us to present both that time, and those people who then lived. But, probably, in their life there was some purpose to which they in every way aspired and firmly believed that they, they, will achieve these objectives. Also there was for them nothing impossible. Therefore they took and made. Designed and constructed. What to them in the Soviet Union did not project and was built by nobody.
And how?! As they made it!
170 days … In total - navsy 170 days were required to design and construct earlier unknown. Therefore the most powerful of all Soviet engines turned out. The locomotive with the highest force of draft. FD power at a speed of 30 km/h made 3 thousand (!) horsepowers, twice exceeding a similar indicator of the main cargo main engine of that time - the series E engine. And the settlement force of draft of FD - 23 300 kgfs (technical 21 200). And it - in comparison with 19 000 at “Eshak“ (22,6% more).
But despite all these positive characteristics of the new engine, the Soviet railroad workers could not use all its advantages fully. FD outstripped the time. And therefore did not fit into those technical capabilities that the railroads had camps of Councils in 30 - x years of the last century.
The engine which length with the six-axis tender made nearly 30 m on the dimensions exceeded the extent of the majority of locomotive depots of that time. But not this main thing. FD turned out rather heavy. And according to the State Planning Committee of the USSR in 1931 rails like Ia, capable to maintain a maximum load of 43,5 kg/rm, were laid on... 2,1% of extent of the main main ways! 13% of all cross ties of the top structure of a way were rotted through.
Only after 1937 when rails of Ia and IIA (heavy types) were laid on the fifth part of trunk mains, the epyura (quantity of cross ties) was increased by kilometer of a way since 1440 to 1840 pieces (the modern standard), as ballast instead of sandstone began to use crushed stone, and at many junction stations there were new buildings of depot, FD was widely used more. But even during the pre-war period it could be used only on 2/3 railroads of the country. Well, and after end of the Great Patriotic War when locomotives with axial loadings no more than 18 hardware, FD, from the 20 - 22 hardware could be allowed to the movement on the restored main sites, it could not be used by the majority of the railroads of that part of the country by which there took place war.
Therefore, when since 1956. on the railroads of the USSR transition to diesel and elektrovozny draft began, and engines began to direct to shunting works or on the minor ways, FD had to be deactivated or written off since neither for the first, nor they were suitable for the second type of works.
But all the same … These engines made the business. And their contribution to progress of the first five-years periods is. It is undoubted and is challenged by nobody. It gave to the Soviet designers and parovozostroitel what they did not have to it. Experience. And confidence in the forces. And is what will surely yield over time result.
And he did not keep itself waiting long. In 1944 - 45 one of the best Soviet cargo main locomotives was developed and constructed. Rather economic and suitable for use on all network of the railroads of the USSR. The series L engine, “Lebedyanka“ as his railroad workers called.
And a serial letter - “L“, and the name, it received by last name the designer - Lev Sergeyevich Lebedyansky who then, in 1931 - the m, was a part of the on-stage performance group projecting FD.