Who is he, the last futurist of the Soviet Union? Part 217 of July, 1968 at Sklifosovsky`s institute died 82 - the summer carelessly looking old man. It seemed that it was the lonely person abandoned by all, however in the Don crematorium a lot of people were going to follow him to the grave. It turned out that the dead was one of founders of a literary trend “futurism“.
… Everything to read boffinry will become
Studying my poetsky susten …
Rejoice I with you so far you do not watch
(A. Kruchyonykh) of
Soon members of the commission on a literary heritage Twisted which representatives of the Writers` Union and Litfond of the USSR entered gathered about its door. The district police officer and the employee of prosecutor`s office removed the paper press and all entered the close room hammered with books.
- Yes here works too much, - someone from the literary environment gave a whistle, - manuscripts - that, manuscripts how many. The dead man was prolific, to see.
It began to touch papers and suddenly continued:
- E and it is someone else`s autographs. Look only how many here Voznesensky wrote a lot, - and he got a pack of the leaves which are used up by the young poet.
- And this is already more serious, - the public prosecutor`s worker by means of the militiaman hardly dragged out from - under beds the huge suitcase which is tied up by a rope. When it was released, it turned out that below, shabby bonds of the Imperial Empire, then millions of times of the first years of the Soviet power, the Soviet chervonets, pre-war bank notes, those banknotes which were in the course before reform of 1961, and, at last, modern money in the very bottom lie.
- The person was rather well-to-do, however, - the same literary figure told, - and lived as the beggar, - and he fastidiously pointed to a window sill, with the dried-up hunk of black bread and the drunk not enough kefir bottle.
This history was handed down among bibliophiles. Then rumors slowly abated and all forgot about the person with a surname Kruchyonykh. On a gravestone to columbaria of the Don cemetery it is written just “writer“.
Time it so, let`s understand what mark was left by the writer Kruchyonykh in domestic literature. And I suggest to begin with biographical particulars: was born, studied … to
So, on February 21, 1886 in a country family in the Kherson region the boy who was named Alexey was born. The family could afford training of the boy in the Odessa art school that gave it fine education. In 1907 Alexey moved to Moscow where soon there was a number of the meetings which abruptly influenced history of the Russian literature. The meeting with David Burliuk whom Benedict Livshits called “a one-eyed Sagittarius“ was the first. Now very few people remember this surprising person, and he was the actual ancestor of the Russian cubofuturism, or as it was called by Khlebnikov, “budetlyanstvo“.
Further meetings with Khlebnikov, Mayakovsky, Livshits and other futurists followed, Kruchyonykh becomes the member of group of “Giley“ which actively fights for “new art“. Subsequently their joint program almanac - the manifesto “Slap in the Face to Public Taste“, and also “A cage of judges“, “The dead moon“ and about ten more similar was published.
Kruchyonykh played one of key roles, he entered into poetry boffinry, that abstract language released from as it was expressed of “everyday dirt“, affirming copyright of “the split words, half-words and their fancifully cunning combinations“. It possesses the poem included in the majority of anthologies written on it one known language:
holes of bulls shchyl
you with bu
the Author assured all cultural world that “in this pentastich there is more Russian national, than in all poetry of Pushkin“.
The prerevolutionary period was very productive in creativity Kruchyonykh. One by one its theoretical books “Word Per Se“, “Secret Defects of Academicians“ in which it formulates the basic principles of boffinry, and also collections of its verses “Lipstick“, “Pigs“, “Vzorval“, whether “Tae le“ come out. Kruchyonykh who received profession of the illustrator in school ornamented all these books itself, including a font.
During World War I Kruchyonykh, disappearing from conscription, lives in Georgia, in Tiflis where founds futuristic group “41?“. In 1920 from Tiflis he moves to Baku.
Soon Kruchyonykh comes back to Moscow. The new stage of his life begins. In the beginning he tried to adjoin the LEF group (the left front of arts) founded by Mayakovsky and to adjoin from the most “left flank“. But even there, on the edge, esthetic views of lefovets seem to it too moderate. He departs from LEFA and begins to fight for the ideas alone. Gradually around it began to appear carefully cultivated and leleyanny him an aura of the martyr and fighter, “a great zaumnik“ as he called himself, or “beeches of the Russian literature“ as once Velemir Khlebnikov called it.
He began to be engaged in antiquarian and second-hand trade, having found the accurate and safe course - to let out a huge number of own compositions, or as he spoke, “produktion“. It made these creations itself, scanty circulations, saying at the same time that it the price will not be soon. Involvement to registration of the most disputable at that time of artists, with very loud surnames increased their importance: Larionov, Goncharova, Malevich, Rozanova, Tatlin and others. There is a bibliography of “produktion“ Twisted in which 236 works, but really published appear it is possible to consider only 124 books which are available in libraries and bibliophile collections. The last published in 1930 the collection “Ironiada“ which produced by a hectographic method, with a circulation of 150 copies.
After emigration of brothers Burlyukov, Khlebnikov and Mayakovsky Kruchenykh`s death avoided literary work, was engaged in book collecting, than and lived for many years to the death.
The statement 86 - summer Korney Chukovsky on the death of Kruchenykh is curious:
- Strange. It seemed immortal … It one remained from all Mayakovsky of an environment.
Mayakovsky appreciated creativity Kruchyonykh, calling his verses “the help to the future generations“.
“Teach scientists,“ -
was Told by Kruchyonykh.
Such here Mayakovsky`s words I also want to finish this small digression to history of the Soviet literature, having added, however, a parting word Kruchyonykh to the future generations: