What is the Rostov Kremlin?
“Paradise!“ - the tourist delightfully exhales, having got on the central yard of the Rostov Kremlin. And at once answers those a question of heading.
Well, so the tourist gets into a plan of the author of this architectural complex at once. Under the sky blue, among it is white - pink walls and covered by a silvery ploughshare or tinned iron of structures entered sees a source of transparent water - and the paradise trees, apple-trees dropping pinkish petals on a surface of waters... Earthly paradise!
The world remained behind walls - those that, according to the Bible, surround paradise. Walls muffle city noise, stop wind. World, rest, beauty, aroma of herbs and flowers...
Creator of ensemble, Rostov metropolitan Jonah III (rule: 1652-1690), built the residence - the place of life and service for itself and the considerable staff providing management of the huge Rostov diocese. Happy combination of circumstances: one person, and very uncommon, artly gifted, became the customer, the ideologist, the architect and the artist of an architectural complex of inexpressible beauty.
The Rostov hierarchal house, the old hierarchal yard - so was called ensemble in XVII, 18th, 19th centuries. So it quite often is called in works of the historians and art critics investigating Old Russian architecture now.
But from 19th century the ensemble received the new name under which it is known to millions now, - the Rostov Kremlin . The Kremlin it was called by local and visiting fans of antiquities Russian, impressed with a show falling into decay, but from that even more majestic buildings.
Neither metropolitans, nor archbishops live in stone chambers of ensemble for a long time, more than two hundred years ago they got over in the center of the province - Yaroslavl. Since the end of the 18th century of the building of the hierarchal yard left to the mercy of fate decayed. Ruins appealed to patriotism Rostovtsev, to their feeling of a debt to fatherlike coffins.
On fulfillments of citizens inspired also judgments of the notable travelers who were quite often appearing in Rostov - grandees, officials, architects, writers: in those days Russia already began to understand what treasure is represented by monuments of national history and culture.
The Rostov Kremlin - treasure, it was clear to both city visitors, and owners. Here owners - that, rostovets, also rejected arisen in 1 - y to a half of the 19th century the project of demolition of ruins for the sake of construction of the Gostiny dvor city important for known for the fair.
In 1860 - e the Rostov merchant Ivan Hranilov literally on the world went, collecting donations for repair of the Kremlin. The enterprise was successful - on the raised money it was succeeded to ponovit the Kremlin temples left the diocese with frescos of the 17th century. But these efforts were insufficient, applications of forces were demanded by all ensemble.
And at the beginning of 1880 - x. rostovets, too merchants - Andrey Titov and Ivan Shlyakov got down to business too. As well as their fellow countryman Hranilov, they were not limited in the interests to a pursuit of profit. They chose as the purpose of life collecting and distribution of data on hometown history, and then - up to a death instant - restoration of the Rostov Kremlin, the device and daily maintenance of the museum in it.
Occupations by study of local lore, an archaeography, the collecting of ancient monuments, the edition of books on local history promoted contacts Rostovtsev with intellectuals of both capitals. First of all - with the famous Russian historian count Alexey Uvarov, one of founders of the Moscow Archaeological Society (MAS), the Historical museum in Moscow (GIM), with his wife Praskoviya Uvarova who headed MAO after death of the husband.
Titov and Shlyakov realized: at formidability of tasks to count on a widow`s mite it is not necessary. It was necessary to look for the people ready to finance large-scale restoration. This burden was charged themselves by the rostovets who from petty bourgeoises are beaten out in merchants of the first guild Vsevolod and Evgraf Korolevy. For a long time living in Tomsk, known there for charity, they readily gave money for restoration of White chamber of the Rostov Kremlin.
The “renewal from ashes“ of an ancient monument happening in Rostov in 1883 and the structure of the museum in it made great impression on the Russian society. One of the first in the country the small district city undertook restoration of the antiquities. The initiative proceeded not from the state, not from church, not from provincial officials - the city community was capable to give rise to such high initiatives and to realize them.
On October 28, 1883 Rostov became the museum city - the Russia`s third city which created the public museum. Provincial Tver, the second - Moscow with opened in May, 1883 became the first in 1866. Historical museum.
Restoration of the Rostov Kremlin continued in process of emergence all of new and new donors. And them was much - to donate for restoration became nearly fashion.
The City Council counted itself obliged though by the small sum, but to support the Kremlin and the museum. Three years later the museum of the Rostov Kremlin the successor of the Russian throne, future tsar Nicholas II accepted under the protection, having appointed the capital to contents. In 1910. The State Duma legislatively fixed the all-Russian status of the museum, having decided to release money for its contents from treasury.
Restoration of the end of the 19th century, placement here of the museum provided safe existence of the Rostov Kremlin more than on half a century. More precisely - till 1953 when the tornado beheaded the Kremlin temples, broke roofs. The restoration which began after this trouble made the Kremlin such what it now.
The present ensemble substantially corresponds to an original form. Coloring of walls - on the basis of a tsemyanka, pink different degree of intensity is restored, up to almost white. The Metropolitan garden is reconstructed, apple-trees and on the central yard are planted, the pond reflects heaven in an environment of these apple-trees. It Rostovsky thought up the Kremlin and Jonah Rostovsky made: created paradise on the earth.
... But after the first sigh: “Paradise!“ the tourist in Rostovsky the Kremlin wrinkles a forehead. Also speaks: “I somewhere saw it...“. Also remembers: “So it removed “Ivan Vasilyevich“ here?!“