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# How to adjust a piano in house conditions?

U of many who practise music stand houses old Soviet pianos 20 - 30 - summer age. Whether it is possible to adjust them in house conditions? Let`s try to understand. For a start the theory has some

. Probably, all know that they for a basis at control of musical instruments use tone of a note of “La“ which frequency makes 440 Hz. The ratio of frequencies actually is logarithmic, the frequency of a note of each following octave is twice more previous (La of the second octave has the frequency of 880 Hz and pr). The musical system is called evenly tempered, in it each octave is divided into 12 equal “shares“, the frequency of tone is determined by a formula F(i) = by F0*2^ (i/12) where F0 - initial frequency, and i - number of half tone. Thus, it is possible to determine the frequency of any note on the piano keyboard, in this plan harmony is quite checked by algebra. From this quite practical conclusion follows: time a sound can be counted and measured mathematically, so and process of control can be quite programmed and charged to the computer.

Now we will return to control of a piano. Certainly, it is impossible to adjust the tool aurally without experience, not for nothing earlier adjusters - professionals were engaged in it only. Now everything became slightly simpler: exist as devices - tuners (their price fluctuates from 1 thousand rubles for amateur models, to 30 thousand rubles for professional), and programs for various platforms (the personal computer, smartphones, tablets). Their essence is happy is simple, they show on the screen the frequency of a note and its deviation from exact value. Further, as they say, trick. We will also start technical part.

## Tools

stick to

of the String in a piano on a frame, the end of each string (them, by the way, more than 200) is reeled up on virbel - a core with a square head. Rotating virbel, we change a string tension, as it is required at control. The main tool is the key here .

It is the best of all to get a key in specialized shops (the question price from 1000 rubles) though the main thing that its diameter precisely approached can approach and usual cap. Categorically it is not recommended to use “make-shifts“ like passatizhy or other - distance between virbelyam very little, and the chance everything is high to spoil. If there are no specialized shops nearby, the most reliable way is to uncover the tool and to measure the head size virbelya.

The next moment is that to each note in a piano (except bass) there correspond not one, but three strings. It is necessary to adjust them in turn and to muffle next, it is possible or to use a triangle from a piece of rubber, or to strike slightly the necessary string with something small, without mentioning the others.

Ready sets for control can be got on eBay, it turns out cheaper, than in the Russian shops, however the parcel will come only in several weeks. The set price at the same time can make a little more than 1000 rubles. all enters it necessary (a key, a tuning fork, rubber inserts and a felt tape for a zaglusheniye of strings).

## Control

control process, probably, is clear to

After the aforesaid. As the tuner any program is used (for example, the free program for iPad). At control we hold the corresponding note for a string unblocking, then slightly we strike a string and we look at the screen. The program shows the name of a note in an alphabetic look (to La`s notes - Xi - To - Re - Mi - Fa - Salt there correspond the letters ABCDEFG) and a frequency deviation from nominal. The deviation is corrected by the small movements of a key since to each key there correspond 3 strings, it is necessary to repeat action 3 times. Considering quantity of keys of a piano, process turns out very long and laborious.

Certain difficulties are only with bass notes - thick twisted strings have a large number of overtones, and the tuner cannot often determine the correct frequency. So for the lowest registers check aurally nevertheless remains actual. It is not so difficult, it is enough to play an octave with the top, correctly adjusted note, the dissonance is felt at once if it is. And if there is a small discrepancy, it is not so critical, the lower registers are practically not used in real game.

## the Conclusion

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In - the first, there is a wish to tell about quality of control. Programs - tuners provide determination of frequency with an accuracy less than 1% that more than it is enough. Though among musicians - professionals the control “on the tuner“ is considered draft: the real tool differs from mathematical model in existence of a large number of overtones, harmonicas and “to bring“ them together for an ideal sound enough - difficult, it is already rather an art, than skill. There is so-called curve Reylsbeka showing discrepancy of actual and settlement frequencies at edges of range. But it is rather actual for concert tools and is hardly actual for the level of house execution or music school. More real problem happens the fact that the tool can not hold tone height - over time the tree dries, happens that some splittings do not provide a string tension. It is in that case better to address the expert, independent repair is hardly expedient here.

In - the second, a price question: whether house control is expedient? It is possible to tell at once - if to speak about money, then is not present. The spent whole day and a sore back after 8 hours of standing, having bent over the tool, there are no 500 - 1000 rubles of economy. But if to speak about technical and cognitive interest, then process of control is quite interesting and is worth it that to execute it. There is nothing unreal and superdifficult here. And at last, there are situations when the adjuster cannot simply be called (for example, in settlements or towns).

So to use or not the provided information, everyone can solve. The main thing that there is a choice.