History of Yazidi and Kurds (part 2) of
History of Yazidi and Kurds.
“The more we know, the more we understand
that we know nothing“
of 70 g dne
by this time there passed the Hellenism era, time of domination of the Roman state and Parthian power came. By this time and the state Great Armenia reached peak of the power (but it for a while, already in 65 g dne after war with Rome Armenia lost part of the possession). Due to the expansion of the Armenian state, settlement of Armenians appeared on coast Caspian (Albania Caucasian) and the Mediterranean Sea (Syria, Cilicia). Due to the capture of Mesopotamia by the Parthian state, to Entre Rios the policy of support of the religion - Zoroastrianism proceeded, at simultaneous reductions of the rights of all other religions. The number of the temples which are not belonging to Zoroastrian religion decreases. Also the number of temples at Yazidi decreases. So far in Mesopotamia a spoken language remains Aramaic though Persian takes root more and stronger. Due to the submission of Asia Minor to the Roman state, there Greek extends more and stronger, only Romans in the large cities of M. Aziya, Syria and Palestine use Latin.
225 of our era
the era of domination of Parthia came to an end by this time (the power in the region passed to the Persian state Sasanidov). For last period there were frequent wars of Rome and Parfiya for possession of Armenia. Armenia was finally subordinated to Parfiya. Big ethnic processes to Entre Rios did not happen, but more and more widely to Entre Rios Persian was applied. More and stronger temples of other gods (including temples of Yazidi) were oppressed. New zrama for Zoroastrians were under construction. Yazidi still used Aramaic language, but already some Yazidi began to pass to the dialect of Persian (kormandzha). Kormandzhi becomes language of Yazidi more and more. Yazidi move more and more on the North of Entre Rios where and now the main part of Yazidi lives. Aysora (ancestors of Assyrians) still keep Aramaic language and too keep the religion. With resettlement of considerable part of Yazidi on the North (on the former lands of Assyria), there are more Yazidi temples. In east part of the Roman Empire Greek extends more and more widely (especially in Asia Minor and Syria). On the place of the Colchis state the Lazsky kingdom appeared.
comes to the end an era Sasanidov by this time. In Arabia the Arab state (the Arab Caliphate) appears. The Roman Empire disappeared from the world map, on its place in the Middle East there is Byzantium. By this time in many countries the Christian religion extends (in Armenia, Byzantium, Georgia). Even aysor (Assyrians) adopted Christianity (having turned away from belief of the ancestors). In the territory of all Asia Minor the Greek (Byzantine) language became colloquial. Yazidi are still faithful to the belief, but the most part of Yazidi already lives in the north of modern Iraq and uses the language similar to language of Kurds - kurmandzh.
by this time across the territory of the Middle East (and Entre Rios) the Arab gains rushed, on all this territory Arabs brought the religion - to Ils which began to be imposed in the violent way to all subdued people. In Islamic religious books it is told: “There are no gods above Allah“. That is the elamsky religion does not recognize any gods except Allah. And destruction incorrect (not recognizing Islam) is considered the main policy of the Islamic states. In these conditions to Entre Rios began to disappear quickly (to be destroyed) all non-Muslim temples. The most part of temples of Yazidi on average and Southern Entre Rios was destroyed. The remains of Yazidi completely left on the North of Iraq. There they kept the ethnic community and the religion. Resettlement of Yazidi to other regions of the world began with those times (at first small groups) (to Byzantium, to Armenia, to Georgia). The people which remained in the southern and middle part of Entre Rios generally knowing Aramaic language (it is similar to Arab) began to pass quickly to the Arab language and to accept Islam (refusing gods of the ancestors). Arabs established the power in Armenia and Albania Caucasian. But in these subordinated lands big settlements of Arabs did not appear, in Iran too big settlements of Arabs were not, but Persians quickly began to accept Islam, having refused the religion - Zoroastrianism.
by this time the most part of the territory of the Middle East (including Asia Minor) was won by seldzhuka (oguzsky tribes from Central Asia). These gains did not exert strong impact on the ethnic map of the region, but in Asia Minor number Greek was strongly reduced (the Byzantine population), and the number of Turkic tribes During this period grew there was a uniform Georgian state and there were the Georgian people, on the basis of the oguzsky tribes which intruded in Albania Caucasian at this particular time, the Azerbaijani people began to be formed.
At this time religion of Yazidi (sharaf - hell - dynes). it was partially reformed, but the fundamentals of religion remained. It occurred because some Yazidi began to change the belief (belief of fathers) for Islam. And at the same time apostates still considered themselves as Yazidi. After reform Yazidi ceased to consider apostates the people. Muslims (the former Yazidi) turned into ordinary Kurds especially as language of Yazidi in those days (and now too) is similar to the Kurdish language for 60 - 70%.
by this time the Mongolian state Hulagudidov won the most part of the studied region. Invasion of Mongols did not lead to considerable changes of the population of the studied territory. During the studied period in the territory of Hugo - the East of Asia Minor there was a Kilikiysky Armenian kingdom. All Transcaucasia, including Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan was subordinated to Mongols. By this time in the territory of Azerbaijan the Azerbaijani people were created. During this period there was a disintegration of the Byzantine empire and its new restoration. In the territories subject to Mongols, persecutions and oppressions of other religions were not as Mongols did not accept Islam yet and treated all religions with respect. For this reason in the north of Iraq the considerable number of the Yazidi temples remained. Also there lived the considerable number of the Yazidi people there.
In 11 - 13 centuries on the territory of Kurdistan from Central Asia intruded tribes of nomads - a tyurok and Mongols. Independent Kurdish principalities Shakhrezur and Mervanidov were crushed by Mongols and Turks - seldzhukam
In 13 century Kurdistan became part of the Empire Seldzhukov. In Asia Minor and the region of the Caspian Sea occurred close the Kurd - Turkic contacts as a result of which some Kurdish clans tyurkizirovatsya, and, on the contrary, certain Turkic tribes joined ranks of the Kurdish clans.
by this time in Asia Minor there was a new strong state - the Ottoman Empire, and the new people - Turks - Ottomans appeared, it appeared on the basis of the Turkic tribes which came to Asia Minor together with seldzhuka. By this time almost all Asia Minor was already under the power of Turks. Byzantium as the state was the way out. By the same time the power to Entre Rios and Transcaucasia was subordinated to the new empire - Timur`s empire.
In the Middle Ages historians divided Kurds on 4 taifa (group) whose customs and languages differed: kurmandzh, lur, kalkhor and baths ardelan, goran. Kalkhor called themselves “Kurd“, and the neighbors - the tribe the woman - were called by “kurmandzh“. In scientific literature a dialect the woman treats group of Central Kurdish, as well as a dialect of ardelansky Kurds. Central Kurdish is resisted by kurmandzh. In the history of Kurds cases when tribes passed from one dialect to another are known. In the 18th century in Zap. Iran in Senendzhena where there lived goran, carriers of a dialect of a kurmandzha lodged (a gorga, the sheikh - Ismailia, baylavand, dzhafa) and the part of a gorana passed to a kurmandzha dialect. In the area Bivanish in the center of Zagros mountains occurred transition of the tribe bivanish on a Central Kurdish dialect. “Kurmandzh“ name Mukri themselves, but their dialect belongs to Central Kurdish. Thus kurmandzha ethnonyms, the Kurd, Central Kurdish, etc. are very relative.
Historians often carry Yazidi to Kurds of a dialect of a kurmandzha, but actually Yazidi only use this language, actually consider themselves by the independent people. Yazidi carry those former Yazidi who passed into Islamic belief to Kurds of a kurmandzha, having torn completely with belief of the fathers, and such there was much. I suspect that considerable part of modern Kurds - a kurmandzha were when that Yazidi, descendants of the ancient people of shumer - adab.
B 14 - m developed a century a literary form of language of a kurmandzha.
by this time Turkey subordinated to itself all Middle East, including all Entre Rios, Georgia, Armenia and even Yemen (in Arabia). In Iran there was a state Sefevidov. In the territory of the southern Iraq already there do not live Yazidi at all, all of them moved on the North of Iraq by this time (to mountainous areas), small Yazidi temples and the main center of Yazidi - Lalesh remain there. In the same place many other people - aysor, Kurds of a different origin live. Language of Yazidi is similar to 60% on Kurdish by this time, Yazidi began this language to use because the surrounding population generally spoke the Kurdish languages and a long time these territories were part of the Persian states (including the states Sefevidov).
B after Chaldyransky fight Kurdistan was divided 1514 between Turkey and Iran. From now on the new stage of fight of the Kurdish people for independence - against Turkey and Iran begins.
For last period territorially nothing changed - the western part of the Middle East remained under the power of Turkey (including Iraq and Western Caucasus), and to the east there were possession of Iran. Considerable ethnic changes on the considered territory did not happen.
In 16 century began fight between Sefevidsky Iran and the Ottoman Empire for the right to possess Kurdistan. On the Zokhabsky world of 1639, northern Kurdistan departed to Osmaniya, and southern - to Iran. Such division laid the foundation to formation of two large Kurdish dialect groups: kurmandzh (North) and Central Kurdish (South).
In 18 century developed a literary form of language of Central Kurdish.
For last period there were following changes - the territory of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan became part of the Russian Empire. Entre Rios and the western part of the Middle East there was under the power of Turkey, and a modern territory of Iran - under the power of Iran.
B 1827 as a result of powerful revolt of Kurds under the direction of Makhmed of the pasha Revanduzi independence of the country was declared. This revolt much more facilitated a victory of the Russian troops over Turks. This revolt was suppressed.
at the end of 19 century Kurdistan was divided between Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Then for the first time the ethnonym “Kurd“ also sounded (from the Persian. “Gurdzhistan“ - “The country of wolves“) which in the Middle East began to designate the tribes speaking on sowing. - zap. the Iranian languages, derivatives from median (according to other version the ethnonym “hens - mandzh“ is translated as “son Midii“.) . These tribes were diverse in the anthropological and religious plan. Among them there were representatives of West Asian, horasansky and Caspian types. They were united only relatively by uniform consciousness, and t. the fact that they lived in a hostile foreign-language environment.
For last period Iraq became the independent state (it became independent of Turkey), Syria became independent of Turkey too and passed under management of France. More territorial changes were not.
during the Turkish slaughter of 1915 occurred the first case when division of Kurds into Yazidi and other Kurds became noticeable. Kurds - unnita together with Turks carried out “cleaning“ of Yazidi and Armenians, and in a consequence underwent repressions.
by this time Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan became the independent states. By this time many Kurds left Turkey and Iraq because of oppressions of the authorities. Also many Yazidi acted this way. Many Kurds and Yazidi were sheltered in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Georgia, Russia).
On the card of 1970 are specified dialects of the Kurdish language.
by this time Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan became the independent states.
Yazidi generally live in the province Mosul (the Southern Kurdistan) around Sheihang where there is a center of pagan belief Lalesh. But the considerable part of Yazidi is forced to live outside Kurdistan (in other countries) because of oppressions from outside as Arabs of Iraq, authorities of Turkey, and from Kurds. Especially as in the Iraqi Kurdistan Kurds became absolute masters.
Kurdistan differs in a variety of the existing religions. The vast majority of Kurds - 75% - practise Islam of Sunni sense, the part - Muslims - Shiites and Alawites is considerable, there are also Christians. But, irrespective of religion, Kurds consider as the primordial religion of the ancestors Zoroastrianism (religion of midiyets and ancient Persians).
A the Yazidi living in Kurdistan and speaking language the Yazidi strongly similar to language of Kurds - a kurmandzha, still have the ancient religion - an ezidizm (religion of the ancestors - shumer - an adaba). Though many historians in every possible way try to recognize these people as part of the Kurdish people - their attempts are groundless - history of Yazidi and history of Kurds are absolutely different stories, and these are absolutely different people. Undoubtedly one - both of these people have much in common in the development. Both people have one purpose - independence of Turkey and Iraq, preservation of the culture.