History of Yazidi and Kurds of
History of Yazidi and Kurds.
Is absolutely different stories. These are the different people.
“The more we know, the more we understand
that we know nothing“
Kurds - the people living now generally in the territory of four countries - Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. About an origin of Kurds it is much written, but so far there is no exact and detailed chronological history of an origin of these people. Because history of an origin of Kurds is difficult, Kurds have several dialects, besides at different Kurds and history different, I would call Kurds group of the people having a different origin, different religion and various dialects of language at once.
besides to us should be found out - whether Yazidi are the independent people or as we are said by some historians that it is only an integral part of the Kurdish people.
I will conduct chronologically consecutive research on the Atlas of people of the world and the Atlas of the states of the world, with attraction of additional materials and sources. Research will be conducted across territories - Entre Rios, South Caucasus, the Western Iran.
3000 years dne.
What we see on the card of this time? All Entre Rios inhabits only one people - shumer (more true to call it the Sumer people). These people inhabited all territory of Entre Rios. Shumera founded a set of the cities of the states in the valley of the rivers Tiger and Euphrates. Was there in those days and the city of Adab, inhabited its Sumer adab with the religion (the faith in God and worship of the Sun - in a consequence this religion was called an ezidizm). The religion of the people of an adaba was similar to religions of other Sumer city-states. The origin of the Sumer people, according to legends, is connected with the legendary country Dilmun (the country to the South from Sumer, is supposed that this country was in vicinities of Bahrain). The faith in God and worship of the Sun characterized many religions of the countries of the Ancient East. In Ancient Egypt there was a religion with worship of the goddess Ezida too. Possibly, the origin of this religion was with the legendary country Dilmun too.
What else people lived in the considered territory at this time? In the east from shumer (the Western Iran) elamita, cartridges, lulube, gute lived. All these people and tribes were dravidoidam, as well as tribes in other territory of Iran. Even in the valley of the Indus River there lived too dravidoida which created the developed civilization under Harapp`s name too. In the territory of South Caucasus (to the north of shumer) there lived hurrita which created later the states - Mitangni and Urartu. In all other territory of the Caucasus the Caucasian tribes, related to hurrita lived. In Asia Minor there lived tribes related to hurrita too. On east coast of the Mediterranean Sea there lived the Semitic people which as well as shumer created a set of ancient city-states, such as Ugarit, Bibl, Sidon, Damascus. Once again I will remind
, in the 3000th year dne in the considered territory there were no Indo-European people and tribes. I remind it because some historians try to claim that at this time there already there lived ancient Armenians and ancient Kurds. They there were not at this time.
For information, I report that at this time ancestors of Armenians, Iranians, Indians and Kurds (they treat the Iranian group of languages too) lived in the extensive territory of steppes from Irtysh to Danube. It were Indo-European tribes of pit (drevneyamny) archaeological culture. Still it is possible to call these tribes arias as they are immediate ancestors of all Aryan people - ancient Indians, ancient Iranians, hett, luviyets, palayets (ancestors of Armenians).
That new occurred in the considered region by this time. To Entre Rios the new people - akkadians appeared. These are the Semitic people, it came to Entre Rios from the West, according to some researchers, these people came from Ugarit`s vicinities, i.e. from the district between the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and upper courses of Euphrates. To Entre Rios it was created by Shumero - the Akkadsky kingdom. Akkadians lodged in the basic in northern part of Entre Rios, at the same time the Sumer population remained. Akkadtsyv the main apprehended culture and religion of shumer. They gave only to some Sumer gods the names. But generally in life of shumer changed little. The religion of shumer was not touched. In general all ancient religions differed in the fact that they were respectful to other religions (shumer respected akkadsky gods, akkadians
respected Sumer gods). Akkadians respected also gods to whom inhabitants of Elam which was also subordinated to Akkad worshipped.
What occurred in the region by this time? The Akkadsky state fell under an impact gutiyev, come to Entre Rios in North - the East (from Mountains Zagros mountains). The power into Entre Rios for short time passed to leaders (governors) of these people. Gutiya, there were dravidoidam too, as well as shumer also did not exert strong impact on culture and religion of shumer and akkadians. Especially as their power to Entre Rios was short.
2100 dne by this time the power gutiyev came to an end in
, in Sumer the power of shumer was restored (3 - I am a dynasty of Ur).
On the territory of Entre Rios amore, the Semitic people got. They came from the West - from the territory of the Syrian Desert, they founded the state Larsa (in the west of Sumer). In the north of Entre Rios they merged with akkadians especially as their languages are related. The Sumer people (including adab) led former life, religion and language at them did not change, of course in their languages there were words of akkadians and amoreev as long communication with these people (living nearby) imposed the influence. On North - the West of Entre Rios (in the territory of future state of Mitangni there were several hurritsky states - Ur - Kish and the Gain, Alshe, the Kummiysky kingdom, Yamkhad. In these states hurrita, but at the same time there prevailed and remained also some number of akkadians and shumer and their temples continued to act.
If to look at the ethnic map of Entre Rios of those times, then is visible the difficult card of existence of the different people, but at the same time in those days the religion was not the policy tool (as now), temples of all people worked and all religions were respected, including religion of shumer - an adaba - an ezidizm. Temples of Yazidi (adaba) existed across all territory of Entre Rios - both in the mitanniysky states and in the state amoreev - Larsa. By this period hegemony into Entre Rios passed to the Sumer state Isin.
by this time tsars of Larsa (amorea) subordinated to themselves the most part of Entre Rios.
To Entre Rios life of its people changed a little. But the main event, occurred by this time was the fact that on M. Aziya`s territory where earlier tribes lived, related to hurrita, Indo-European tribes got. It were three groups of tribes - the luviyets who lodged in the south of Asia Minor, it Kheta - lodged in the center M. Asia and created the strong Hetsky power in a consequence. The palayets who lodged on North - the East of Asia Minor which in the future will become a basis for formation of the Armenian people were the third group.
is time when the government of the most famous tsar of Babylonia ended with Hammurapi. He united almost all Entre Rios under the power and created the powerful Babylon power. In the north of Entre Rios the large state of hurrit - the Mitanniysky power is created. But despite it to Entre Rios almost all people with the religions continued to exist. Only such people as akkadians gradually ceased to be mentioned - it was replaced related to it by the people - amore. Amoreysky language becomes language of international communication though in Babylon also language of shumer remained (including adaba language). Yazidi (adab) still lived in the considerable territory of Entre Rios and they had many temples.
1500. dne by this time the power in Babylonia passed
to cartridges. Kassita came to the territory of Babylon from the East, from Mountains Zagros mountains. It is related Sumer the people - they are dravidoida too and were subject to strong influence of Sumer and Elam. For this reason of strong influence on the ethnographic map of Entre Rios they did not affect. On religion of the people of Entre Rios cartridges, did not make strong impact too. At this time strongly the Hetsky power amplifies, it makes the military campaigns on Mitangni and to Babylonia and Syria. But these campaigns did not exert strong impact on Entre Rios.
by this time urarta already have the union of tribes under Uruatri`s name, the people of urart were generally created. By this time Mitangni`s state was crushed and subordinated to hetta. By this time the state of Assyria (the former Sumer city of Ashur) begins to amplify more and more. In the territory of Babylonia of strong changes did not occur.
by this time the Hetsky power fell under blows of “the sea people“. “Sea people“ - it is the big group of the people forced to leave Ancient Greece and the west bank of Asia Minor because of invasion there of modern Greek tribes (doriyets, etoliyets, Ionians) and invasions into M. Aziya of Phrygians. This group joins the following people - pelasg, leleg, kariyets, achaeans, Trojans. On the coast of the Mediterranean Sea they were called philistines, in Sowing. To Africa - garamant, in M. Aziya - danunitam, danayets. On the place of the Hetsky state there were other states - Tuvana, Gurgum, Tabal, Hatti, Samal. Babylonia was freed from the power of kassit by this time. By this time such people as Phoenicians were created, and Palestine Jews occupied. The Hananeysky people ceased to be mentioned. To Syria and Sowing. Mesopotamia tribes arameev begin to get. They get from the territory of the Syrian Desert (these are Semitic tribes related to Jews and amoreyam too). East Phrygians got into east part M. of Asia, they came with North there - M. Aziya`s zamada and lodged in area of dwelling of palayets. Approximately at this time in the north of Iran there are first Iranian tribes - tribes of midiyets (they came from the territory of Central Asia). Despite these changes in the territory of Entre Rios descendants of shumer, the Yazidi people (adab), descendants of akkadians and amoreev still lived. All religions of the different people still coexisted nearby with each other. To Entre Rios language amoreev (mixed with language of akkadians) was the main spoken language of communication. Descendants of shumer in communication among themselves used the language. Services in Sumer temples were conducted in Sumer language. Yazidi too still used at communication among themselves the language, in temples of Yazidi services were held in adaba language.
began mass penetration arameev to Babylonia by this time. By this time urarta created the state (about the lake Wang, sometimes this state called the Vansky kingdom, and urart called bathtubs). Shumera use amoreysky language more and more by this time, Sumer language becomes more and more language for prayers in temples. Izida use amoreysky language more and more too. There are no contradictions between different religions of the different people.
900 g dne
on North - the East of Asia Minor on the basis of tribes of palayets and the western Phrygians created by this time the new people - a hayasa (ancestors of Armenians). Penetration arameev to Entre Rios amplified, even in the Assyrian state began to apply in life Aramaic language instead of amoreysky (especially as these languages are related and similar among themselves). In Babylonia Aramaic language began to be applied more and more in large quantities too. Sumer language in life was not applied at all, Sumer language was long stored by priests of temples. Also was at Yazidi, they began to use Aramaic language more and more too. In temples of Yazidi still services were held in adaba language.
Between religions of the different people of contradictions was not.
800 g dne
by this time the state of Urartu strongly became stronger and expanded the possession at the expense of the neighboring hurritsky lands. Wars between Urartu and Assyria. The Babylon kingdom recognized the dependence on Assyria. By this time there was Mang (Mann`s) state and the new people - manneyets were created (these are the former hurrita too). In Hugo - east part M. of Asia there was a state of danunit (danayets) - it is one of “the sea people“. By this time in the south of Iran tribes of ancient Persians appeared, they settled to the west of the territory of Elam and originally were under the power of elamsky tsars.
by this time language arameev (Aramaic language) became the dominating language not only in the territory of Syria, but in Assyria and in Babylonia. All other languages of the people living there before (shumer, akkadians, amoreev) did not begin to be applied in life. Sumer and akkadsky language was sometimes used in religious celebrations in temples of the different people. Yazidi too completely in life began to use Aramaic language. Language of an adaba was used only by priests of the Yazidi temples.
700 g dne by this time Urartu broadened with
the territory even more. On North - the East of Asia Minor Cimmerians who did attacks on the different countries of the Middle East lodged. Assyria won considerable territories in the West (in Syria and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea). Babylon is subordinated to Assyria too. Assyria conquered Israel, Judea and Cyprus. In all Entre Rios all people used Aramaic language. Still the various temples belonging to various religions worked. Yazidi use Aramaic language too, their temples work still both in the territory of Babylonia, and in the territory of Assyria.
625 g dne
by this time on North - the West of Iran (to the East from the lake Urmia) got Scythians, there they created the kingdom, and from there made attacks on the neighboring tribes and the states. Temporarily they kept in the submission even the Mussel. Cimmerians (from M. Aziya`s territory) made attacks on the states of the Middle East too. By this time Babylon became completely independent of Assyria. The mussel became the independent state too. The Assyrian power began to weaken. The mussel began war for Mana`s submission. On the territory of the West and South of Urartu Armenians began to be settled.
590 g dne
the Mussel in the union with Babylon destroyed by this time the Assyrian state. The mussel won the extensive territory from the central Iran to the center of Asia Minor.
Babylon won extensive territories in the West (to coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Urartu is destroyed by the Mussel too, became one of satrapies of the Mussel. On the territory of the former Urartu midiyets get (from the East). From merge of urart and midiyets ancestors of future Kurds perhaps begin to appear (but it only washing with nothing not
the proved hypothesis). From the West the territory of Urartu Armenians occupy and approximately from now on this territory instead of Urartu became more often to call “Armenia“. Elam was subordinated to Vivilon. Elamityan becomes less (from the West Babylonians get there, from the East they are restricted by Persians). In the Western Iran (Zagros mountains) appears more and more Iranian tribes, territories, the inhabited lulubeyam, gutiya, by cartridges are quickly reduced. Perhaps at this time here process of formation of the Kurdish language began too (but it only my not proved assumption). Yazidi still used by this time Aramaic language, temples of Yazidi in all territory of Babylonia and in the territory of the former Assyria functioned.
500 g dne
created the big Persian power with a dynasty Akhemenidov which destroyed the state the Mussel (it became satrapy of Persia) and Babylon by this time (too became satrapy of Persia). The territory of Armenia became satrapy of Persia too. The state Lydia became part of the power Akhemenidov too. With the advent of Persians in the extensive territory of the Middle East, in all territory subject to Persians, the religion of ancient Persians - Zoroastrianism began to extend, at first this religion carried the name Zoroastrianism (faith in god Akhur &ndash Mazda; “Wise Lord“, “Good Creator“), later religion received the name of a zorostrizm (on behalf of the prophet Akhur Mazda - Zaratushtra). In the first years of the power the Persian tsars respected foreign gods (gods of other people). By the considered time, still all temples of all gods in the territory of Persia functioned without oppressions. Temples of Yazidi too all functioned, Yazidi still used Aramaic language as in Persia Aramaic was considered as one of state.
340 g dne
in the territory of modern Azerbaijan created by this time Atropaten`s state, independent of Persia (the initial name Atropaten`s Mussel). In this state midiyets were one of the main people. Such people as “kurtiya“ are mentioned in Atropatena in the first. I think that at this particular time the new group of the people under the name of “Kurds“ began to be formed. Not only midiyets, but also many local (radical) people - urarta, hurrita, manneyets, lulube, arame, gutiya, cartridges participated in formation of the Kurdish people. Midiytsa as the people are less mentioned in historical documents. In Persia midiyets become Persians.
In other regions midiyets begin to merge with the local people. Tsars of Persia support the Zoroastrian temples more and more. For this purpose they even move the people from the homeland. So Jews were moved to Babylonia. I think, at this time Yazidi began to move more and more from the territory of Babylonia on the North (on the territory of the former Assyria) as in the South and Persians settle in the center of Babylonia more and more, new and new zoroastiriysky temples are under construction, it is even possible that the former Sumer, Yazidi and akkadsky temples are for this purpose used. Still Yazidi, as well as Assyrians use Aramaic language.
In spite of the fact that from now on data about midiyets vanish in historical materials, it is necessary to assume that during this period the new ethnic community - the Kurdish people, lineal descendants of midiyets begins to develop.
From the point of view of the famous scientist N. Ya. Mar, Kurds keep elements of ancient culture of the Lobby of Asia. Though the question of an origin of Kurds needs further research, but also now, judging by Sumer and Babylon written sources, is clear that Kurds are descendants of ancient midiyets. But it is only one of versions of an origin of the Kurdish people. V. Minorsky adheres to the concept of a median origin of Kurds in the researches as well known kurdolog. Other famous scientists are orientalists Neldeke, M. Gartmann, Veysbakh confirm opinion of antique authors, in particular Strabon that kirt or kurt which lived in Small Midii and Perside were Kurds.
Important geographical and strategic position of Kurdistan drew attention of neighboring states which sought to subdue it. After falling of the median state (6th century BC) Kurdistan became the arena of infinite wars.
Historical Kurdistan (between the Armenian Highlands and Zagros mountains) in ancient time was part of such states as Urartu, Manney, Mitangni, Assyria. Hurritsky adverbs were gradually forced out Iranian (in h by median). Hurritsky influence was expressed in an ergativny system of the offer of modern Kurdish language and toponymics of Kurdistan. 75% of names of the Kurdish tribes (a bay, tirikan, bazayn, bakran, mand), 60% of names of the cities, the rivers and lakes (Mardin, Ziviya, Dinavar, Barzan) have a hurritsky origin. Residents of the state the Mussel (the neighbor of hurrit) - midiyets consisted of confederation of 6 diverse tribes: bouzas (“natives“), parataken (“nomads“), strukhat (“huts“ - the general of the Urals - Altai - the Dravidian word designating “clan“), arizant (“hurrita“), budiya (the name is connected with Sako`s ethnonym - the massagetsky tribe of budin), magicians (allegedly were connected with shumer).
Krom of midiyets and Persians on the territory of Iran interfered also other iranoyazychny tribes. From the middle 1 - go thousands dne in mountainous areas of Iran and the North of the Lobby of Asia are known tribes which antique authors call “nomadam“ or call “vagrant“ nomads. In 2 - y to a half 1 - go dne tribes of nomad were disseminated by one thousand in various areas on the Armenian Highlands, mountains in the north of Iran, in Zagros mountains. From the Iranian tribes - nomad March and kirtiya (kyurtiya) which were in mountains of the Iranian Azerbaijan and Prikaspiya, on the Armenian Highlands, in Kurdistan and the South of Zagros mountains are most often mentioned. “Curt“ in srednepersidsky language is translated as “cattle-farmer“. It and the name in a consequence was assigned to the new people - Kurds. This version of an origin of the Kurdish people is most probable.
250 g dne
in the Middle East passed by this time many events. The Akhemenidsky power was destroyed by Alexander of Macedon, he tried to create uniform Greco - the Persian power, but quickly died and his power broke up to the states of his commanders. In the considered region governed Selevkida (descendants of the commander Selevk). Though it was much constructed the cities with the Greek and Macedonian population, strong change on the population of the region did not happen. Only Asia Minor and Syria underwent Ellinization considerably. By this time the Armenian states &ndash were formed; Armenia Great and Armenia Small, but so far these states strongly depend on the Hellenic states, most often they are subordinated Selevkidam. In the north of modern Azerbadzhan the state of Albania Caucasian was formed. There was a state Iberia (East Georgia and part of the Western Georgia) and the state of Colchis. There was independent an ellinizirovany state Paphlagonia (in the north of M. Aziya). By this time Cappadocia became independent (in the center M. of Asia). Kappadokiytsa - the descendants of ancient hett mixed with Phrygians. In 250 dne in the north of modern Iran the Parthian state was formed. From 340 on
of 250 g dne the most part of temples of ancient Sumer and akkadsky gods worked, including temples of Yazidi, but their number was considerably reduced as the Persian authorities sought to extend in all territory of the Akhemenidsky power the religion - Zoroastrianism. Alexander of Macedon and Selevkida did not interfere with activity of temples. In Mezhdupechye the main language of communication between the people continued to remain Aramaic language.
70 g dne
there passed the Hellenism era by this time, time of domination of the Roman state and Parthian power came. By this time and the state Great Armenia reached peak of the power (but it for a while, already in 65 g dne after war with Rome Armenia lost part of the possession). Due to the expansion of the Armenian state, settlement of Armenians appeared on coast Caspian (Albania Caucasian) and the Mediterranean Sea (Syria, Cilicia). Due to the capture of Mesopotamia by the Parthian state, to Entre Rios the policy of support of the religion - Zoroastrianism proceeded, at simultaneous reductions of the rights of all other religions. The number of the temples which are not belonging to Zoroastrian religion decreases. Also the number of temples at Yazidi decreases. So far in Mesopotamia a spoken language remains Aramaic though Persian takes root more and stronger. Due to the submission of Asia Minor to the Roman state, there Greek extends more and stronger, only Romans in the large cities of M. Aziya, Syria and Palestine use Latin.
225 of our era
the era of domination of Parthia came to an end by this time (the power in the region passed to the Persian state Sasanidov). For last period there were frequent wars of Rome and Parfiya for possession of Armenia. Armenia was finally subordinated to Parfiya. Big ethnic processes to Entre Rios did not happen, but more and more widely to Entre Rios Persian was applied. More and stronger temples of other gods (including temples of Yazidi) were oppressed. New zrama for Zoroastrians were under construction. Yazidi still used Aramaic language, but already some Yazidi began to pass to the dialect of Persian (kormandzha). Kormandzhi becomes language of Yazidi more and more. Yazidi move more and more on the North of Entre Rios where and now the main part of Yazidi lives. Aysora (ancestors of Assyrians) still keep Aramaic language and too keep the religion. With resettlement of considerable part of Yazidi on the North (on the former lands of Assyria), there are more Yazidi temples. In east part of the Roman Empire Greek extends more and more widely (especially in Asia Minor and Syria). On the place of the Colchis state the Lazsky kingdom appeared.
comes to the end an era Sasanidov by this time. In Arabia the Arab state (the Arab Caliphate) appears. The Roman Empire disappeared from the world map, on its place in the Middle East there is Byzantium. By this time in many countries the Christian religion extends (in Armenia, Byzantium, Georgia). Even aysor (Assyrians) adopted Christianity (having turned away from belief of the ancestors). In the territory of all Asia Minor the Greek (Byzantine) language became colloquial. Yazidi are still faithful to the belief, but the most part of Yazidi already lives in the north of modern Iraq and uses the language similar to language of Kurds - kurmandzh.
by this time across the territory of the Middle East (and Entre Rios) the Arab gains rushed, on all this territory Arabs brought the religion - to Ils which began to be imposed in the violent way to all subdued people. In Islamic religious books it is told: “There are no gods above Allah“. That is the elamsky religion does not recognize any gods except Allah. And destruction incorrect (not recognizing Islam) is considered the main policy of the Islamic states. In these conditions to Entre Rios began to disappear quickly (to be destroyed) all non-Muslim temples. The most part of temples of Yazidi on average and Southern Entre Rios was destroyed. The remains of Yazidi completely left on the North of Iraq. There they kept the ethnic community and the religion. Resettlement of Yazidi to other regions of the world began with those times (at first small groups) (to Byzantium, to Armenia, to Georgia). The people which remained in the southern and middle part of Entre Rios generally knowing Aramaic language (it is similar to Arab) began to pass quickly to the Arab language and to accept Islam (refusing gods of the ancestors). Arabs established the power in Armenia and Albania Caucasian. But in these subordinated lands big settlements of Arabs did not appear, in Iran too big settlements of Arabs were not, but Persians quickly began to accept Islam, having refused the religion - Zoroastrianism.
by this time the most part of the territory of the Middle East (including Asia Minor) was won by seldzhuka (oguzsky tribes from Central Asia). These gains did not exert strong impact on the ethnic map of the region, but in Asia Minor number Greek was strongly reduced (the Byzantine population), and the number of Turkic tribes During this period grew there was a uniform Georgian state and there were the Georgian people, on the basis of the oguzsky tribes which intruded in Albania Caucasian at this particular time, the Azerbaijani people began to be formed.
At this time religion of Yazidi (sharaf - hell - dynes). it was partially reformed, but the fundamentals of religion remained. It occurred because some Yazidi began to change the belief (belief of fathers) for Islam. And at the same time apostates still considered themselves as Yazidi. After reform Yazidi ceased to consider apostates the people. Muslims (the former Yazidi) turned into ordinary Kurds especially as language of Yazidi in those days (and now too) is similar to the Kurdish language for 60 - 70%.
by this time the Mongolian state Hulagudidov won the most part of the studied region. Invasion of Mongols did not lead to considerable changes of the population of the studied territory. During the studied period in the territory of Hugo - the East of Asia Minor there was a Kilikiysky Armenian kingdom. All Transcaucasia, including Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan was subordinated to Mongols. By this time in the territory of Azerbaijan the Azerbaijani people were created. During this period there was a disintegration of the Byzantine empire and its new restoration. In the territories subject to Mongols, persecutions and oppressions of other religions were not as Mongols did not accept Islam yet and treated all religions with respect. For this reason in the north of Iraq the considerable number of the Yazidi temples remained. Also there lived the considerable number of the Yazidi people there.
In 11 - 13 centuries on the territory of Kurdistan from Central Asia intruded tribes of nomads - tyurok and Mongols. Independent Kurdish principalities Shakhrezur and Mervanidov were crushed by Mongols and Turks - seldzhukam
In 13 century Kurdistan became part of the Empire Seldzhukov. In Asia Minor and the region of the Caspian Sea occurred close the Kurd - Turkic contacts as a result of which some Kurdish clans tyurkizirovatsya, and, on the contrary, certain Turkic tribes joined ranks of the Kurdish clans.
by this time in Asia Minor there was a new strong state - the Ottoman Empire, and the new people - Turks - Ottomans appeared, it appeared on the basis of the Turkic tribes which came to Asia Minor together with seldzhuka. By this time almost all Asia Minor was already under the power of Turks. Byzantium as the state was the way out. By the same time the power to Entre Rios and Transcaucasia was subordinated to the new empire - Timur`s empire.
In the Middle Ages historians divided Kurds on 4 taifa (group) whose customs and languages differed: kurmandzh, lur, kalkhor and baths ardelan, goran. Kalkhor called themselves “Kurd“, and the neighbors - the tribe the woman - were called by “kurmandzh“. In scientific literature a dialect the woman treats group of Central Kurdish, as well as a dialect of ardelansky Kurds. Central Kurdish is resisted by kurmandzh. In the history of Kurds cases when tribes passed from one dialect to another are known. In the 18th century in Zap. Iran in Senendzhena where there lived goran, carriers of a dialect of a kurmandzha lodged (a gorga, the sheikh - Ismailia, baylavand, dzhafa) and the part of a gorana passed to a kurmandzha dialect. In the area Bivanish in the center of Zagros mountains occurred transition of the tribe bivanish on a Central Kurdish dialect. “Kurmandzh“ name Mukri themselves, but their dialect belongs to Central Kurdish. Thus kurmandzha ethnonyms, the Kurd, Central Kurdish, etc. are very relative.
Historians often carry Yazidi to Kurds of a dialect of a kurmandzha, but actually Yazidi only use this language, actually consider themselves by the independent people. Yazidi carry those former Yazidi who passed into Islamic belief to Kurds of a kurmandzha, having torn completely with belief of the fathers, and such there was much. I suspect that considerable part of modern Kurds - a kurmandzha were when that Yazidi, descendants of the ancient people of shumer - adab.
B 14 - m developed a century a literary form of language of a kurmandzha.
by this time Turkey subordinated to itself all Middle East, including all Entre Rios, Georgia, Armenia and even Yemen (in Arabia). In Iran there was a state Sefevidov. In the territory of the southern Iraq already there do not live Yazidi at all, all of them moved on the North of Iraq by this time (to mountainous areas), small Yazidi temples and the main center of Yazidi - Lalesh remain there. In the same place many other people - aysor, Kurds of a different origin live. Language of Yazidi is similar to 60% on Kurdish by this time, Yazidi began this language to use because the surrounding population generally spoke the Kurdish languages and a long time these territories were part of the Persian states (including the states Sefevidov).
B after Chaldyransky fight Kurdistan was divided 1514 between Turkey and Iran. From now on the new stage of fight of the Kurdish people for independence &ndash begins; against Turkey and Iran.
For last period territorially nothing changed - the western part of the Middle East remained under the power of Turkey (including Iraq and Western Caucasus), and to the east there were possession of Iran. Considerable ethnic changes on the considered territory did not happen.
In 16 century began fight between Sefevidsky Iran and the Ottoman Empire for the right to possess Kurdicamp. On the Zokhabsky world of 1639, northern Kurdistan departed to Osmaniya, and southern - to Iran. Such division laid the foundation to formation of two large Kurdish dialect groups: kurmandzh (North) and Central Kurdish (South).
In 18 century developed a literary form of language of Central Kurdish.
For last period there were following changes - the territory of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan became part of the Russian Empire. Entre Rios and the western part of the Middle East there was under the power of Turkey, and a modern territory of Iran - under the power of Iran.
B 1827 as a result of powerful revolt of Kurds under the direction of Makhmed of the pasha Revanduzi independence of the country was declared. This revolt much more facilitated a victory of the Russian troops over Turks. This revolt was suppressed.
at the end of 19 century Kurdistan was divided between Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Then for the first time the ethnonym “Kurd“ also sounded (from the Persian. “ Gurdzhistan “ - “The country of wolves“) which in the Middle East began to designate the tribes speaking on sowing. - zap. the Iranian languages, derivatives from median (according to other version the ethnonym “hens - mandzh“ is translated as “son Midii“.) . These tribes were diverse in the anthropological and religious plan. Among them there were representatives of West Asian, horasansky and Caspian types. They were united only relatively by uniform consciousness, and t. the fact that they lived in a hostile foreign-language environment.
For last period Iraq became the independent state (it became independent of Turkey), Syria became independent of Turkey too and passed under management of France. More territorial changes were not.
during the Turkish slaughter of 1915 occurred the first case when division of Kurds into Yazidi and other Kurds became noticeable. Kurds - unnita together with Turks saw off “ cleaning “ Yazidi and Armenians, and in a consequence underwent repressions.
by this time Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan became the independent states. By this time many Kurds left Turkey and Iraq because of oppressions of the authorities. Also many Yazidi acted this way. Many Kurds and Yazidi were sheltered in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Georgia, Russia).
On the card of 1970 are specified dialects of the Kurdish language.
by this time Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan became the independent states.
Yazidi generally live in the province Mosul (the Southern Kurdistan) around Sheihang where there is a center of pagan belief Lalesh. But the considerable part of Yazidi is forced to live outside Kurdistan (in other countries) because of oppressions from outside as Arabs of Iraq, authorities of Turkey, and from Kurds. Especially as in the Iraqi Kurdistan Kurds became absolute masters.
Kurdistan differs in a variety of the existing religions. Vast majority of Kurds - 75% - practise Islam of Sunni sense, the part &ndash is considerable; Muslims are Shiites and Alawites, there are also Christians. But, irrespective of religion, Kurds consider as the primordial religion of the ancestors Zoroastrianism (religion of midiyets and ancient Persians).
A the Yazidi living in Kurdistan and speaking language the Yazidi strongly similar to language of Kurds - a kurmandzha, still have the ancient religion - an ezidizm (religion of the ancestors - shumer - an adaba). Though many historians in every possible way try to recognize these people as part of the Kurdish people - their attempts are groundless - history of Yazidi and history of Kurds are absolutely different stories, and these are absolutely different people. Undoubtedly one - both of these people have much in common in the development. Both people have one purpose - independence of Turkey and Iraq, preservation of the culture.