How invented aqualungs? The first diving devices
In June, 1943, 70 years ago, the first immersion with an aqualung which opened a new era in development by the person of the underwater world was made. And what was “before“ ?
People are very inquisitive and very much love gold. “And as if to reach in - about - it that sunk ship and to take ingots of precious metal and a coin from its hold...“ - and divers podnyrivat, were enough that managed to grasp, and headlong hurried to a surface, to saving air.
People for a long time found out that if to ship the turned mug vertically in water, in it air keeps. It was thought up, and the underwater bell is realized then. The underwater bell was invented... long ago. And in Leonardo Da Vinci`s papers there was something “such“, and Francis Bacon in 1620 wrote something “about it“... Well if deeply to get a grasp.
In 1531 in the lake near Rome the very first bell passed test. In the middle of the 17th century Swedes by means of a bell removed guns from the sunk ship of “VAZ“.
At the end of the 18th century suggested to deliver air in a bell by means of the pump. Generally - the idea soared in air, all scientists knew that it is possible. Theoretically. And even cases of successful use of the device were known.
In December, 1830 at coast of Brazil the frigate “Tetis“ transporting nearly one million pounds sterling in a hard coin broke. It was not the present one million, and one million two centuries ago when quite well and comfortably it was possible to live for 2000-3000 pounds a year.
The frigate with all transported treasures absolutely near the coast, in a bay, at a depth from 10 to 20 meters sank. On depth of 10 m the good diver can quite donyrnut if still water and is not present waves and currents. Unfortunately, the place was very restless. Strong currents, frequent a storm excluded work “just divers“.
In view of extremely difficult conditions command of the English squadron even refused in the beginning attempts to rescue freight. However the commander of a shlyup of “Laytning“ Thomas Dickinson did not agree with opinion of the administration. It was well educated and very inventive. However the fact that it often contradicted the administration and at the same time usually it appeared the rights, - strongly harmed his career and multiplied number of his ill-wishers.
Here and in this case, without having agreed with the administration, he offered the plan - as it is possible to lift the sunk gold. The management became angry and, wishing to set up the subordinate... resolved a rescue operation. It seemed that the bay sizes, constant currents, continuous strong nervousness and depth of water reliably hide the sunk treasures.
Having got permission, the captain began to invent. Dickinson made of the iron water tank “as if an underwater bell“. The ordinary pump for pumping of water is decided to be used to air supply and that hoses sustained water pressure, they were wrapped up strongly tarred canvas.
Gunpowder blew up top of one of rocks in the gulf. When cleaned blown up, received the flat platform suitable for a construction of a cargo arrow on which end it was decided to suspend a bell. The arrow was built from a mast of the sunk frigate. Communication with people in a bell was provided by a slate board on which people below wrote something - and pulled a rope, giving a sign that from above extended a board. Having read, the board was sent on the same rope with the answer down. Already during the first, trial descent, from below transferred a board with the inscription “Lower More Carefully, We See Below Money“. By means of an arrow and a bell it was succeeded to get over 130000 pounds. And then the storm which destroyed an arrow burst.
Other money caught from water, having suspended a bell on the ropes stretched from the island on the island. The bell was shaken and several times fought about rocks. Several times at the same time it was damaged so that it had to be changed. Many times divers risked life, but in this case nobody died. During a rescue operation from water more than 90% of the money transported by the ship were taken.
It was so proved that the bell is quite suitable for use under water. It was necessary to invent a diving suit... To tell the truth, they were invented long before it. In 1819 Englishman Augustus Zibe thought up an open diving suit. A helmet with windows, a hose on which the pomp from a surface drives air, and a leather shirt to a belt. But if you stumble or will bend down - air will disappear - and aha...
But about it is in the following article.