How cats perceive world around?
the Cat came for walk to the yard. The small bug creeping at distance of several meters drew its attention at once. On the right the crow flushed, at the left in air the dragonfly soars. The cat sees all these moving objects at the same time. To it one short look suffices “to grab“ all picture entirely.
our pets are allocated with surprising sense organs which help them quickly and to be guided precisely in any difficult situation and to react instantly to change of a situation. Cats have five sense organs: sight, hearing, sense of smell, taste and touch. Let`s talk about some of them.
Sightof an eye of a cat are ideally adapted by
On the structure for hunting in twilight, at the same time the animal notices the slightest movement of the victim. The crystalline lens of an eye can quickly be focused on object, and excellent binocular sight allows a cat to aim precisely before a jump.
The eyeball is outside covered with a transparent cornea. Forward and back chambers of an eyeball are filled with liquid. Between them there is an iris of the eye and a crystalline lens. On a back wall of eyes there is a retina catching light.
Eyes of a cat are adjusted so that to find the slightest movement as in a retina there are a lot of sticks which are sensitively reacting to any movement of object. The retina of an eye allows cats to see at very bad lighting. It is known that cat`s eyes need 6 times less light, than human. There is an opinion that cats can see in utter darkness, but it not so. Behind a retina there is a layer of the reflecting cages which like a mirror send an incident light back to a retina, providing it with double lighting. If light very weak, then at its reflection its force doubles, and the cat can see in darkness.
The pupil can change the form from shcheleobrazny to round, occupying almost all surface of a cat`s eye. It occurs when illumination very low, and light, for example, is necessary for eyes for night hunting. The pupil can extend also strongly when the cat is frightened or excited, then eyes at her become “on a fifty-kopeck piece“. Change of the size and a form of a pupil happens to the help of muscles of an iris of the eye.
In an internal corner of an eye the blink membrane is located, it helps to moisten eyes and to clear them of dust. Cats blink seldom, but in the top part of an eye there are plaintive glands which, as well as a blink membrane, constantly moisten eyes of an animal.
Several words about color of cat`s eyes. Kittens are born blue-eyed, but gradually color of eyes changes with age. The matter is that color of eyes depends on a pigment on an iris of the eye. The kitten matures, the pigment is constantly postponed, forming final color of eyes. This process can continue from several months to 2 - 3 years. Than longer process of pigmentation of a retina continues, especially the pigment layer turns out thick, color of eyes at the same time becomes brighter.
of the Cat have surprisingly thin and sensitive hearing. They can catch the most high-pitched sounds with a frequency up to 60 - 65 kHz (it is weak peep of a little mouse), and for comparison: the human ear is capable to perceive high-pitched sounds to 20 kHz.
Auricles are at a cat on the top. Their movement is controlled by a set of muscles. Ears are very mobile, they can turn almost by 180 degrees, nestle and be bent. Such mobile ears allow an animal to distinguish quickly a source of a sound and to estimate its danger. The cat has protection against too loud sounds. On average to fish soup the special perceiving cages which “are ready“ generally for reception of weak sounds are located.
If to compare hearing of cats and dogs, for example, that at the first it will be thinner and selective. Likely, you noticed if the cat sleeps in the room where the owner hard of hearing included a telebox to the full extent, then she will not wake up as the sound of the TV hooting in every possible way is well familiar to it. But if very silent, but unfamiliar sound intrudes in this evening idyll, then kisarik will wake up, will prick up the ears at once and will begin to listen. Sensitivity of a cat`s ear to volume of sound is three times higher, than fish soup of the person.
Sense of smellthe Nose helps a cat to find
food or to find potential production. She can “read“ by means of a nose of “message“, left tribespeople in the form of tags of urine or excrement. In comparison with other predatory animals the scent of cats is weaker, but it is several times stronger, than at the person. It is connected with the fact that the cat in a nose has twice more olfactory receptors, than at the person.
If you stretch to a cat, for example, a toy, she will long sniff at object until she for herself decides whether to it it is worth playing, or it is better to turn away and go on the affairs.
It is known that some smells, for example, of a valerian or cat`s mint, work as drugs. Animals become very excited, move much, begin to mew. If to allow a cat to drink a valerian drop, then it makes on koshasty the same calming impact, as well as on the person.
Intimacy between cats and cats through “mail of smells“ is interestingly established. Males constantly leave urine tags on signs of the possible rivals. They bypass the same territory and “peremechivat“ fragrant messages with enviable constancy. Females leave less pungent smells the pieces of iron located on pads. If the cat likes a smell of a desired cat, it begins to rub cheeks and a neck in that place where his future bride walked. The cat shows full delight and euphoria, making these love actions and showing the sexual interest in contact with the possible darling.
In language and is in a drink of a cat several hundreds of flavoring nipples where flavoring receptors open. Cats can distinguish sour, salty and bitter taste, but do not feel sweet taste. Flavoring receptors well perceive distinctions in meat products with which they are fed, but quite badly “understand“ a difference in vegetable carbohydrates. If compassionate owners try to feed the favourites with fast soups, then on their face there is such expression: “The predator respecting itself will never fall to full vegetarianism!“
Often say that some cats possess “sixth sense“ when can predict an earthquake or the approaching storm. Possibly, koshasty can catch change of magnetic fields of the district or feel weak fluctuations of the soil.
How many still unknown we should learn about dumb animals?