The origin riddle a galosh of
the Riddle of an origin of the people of a galosh
On Far North of the state of Pakistan (the Islamic state) lives in gorges of Hindu Kush the small people a galosh which are not Muslims and continue to adhere to belief of the ancestors, some historians consider that it is the former soldiers of Alexander Macedonian. Externally galoshes very much resemble modern Europeans (light skin and a fair hair). Kalasha`s
- the small dardsky people inhabiting three valleys of the right inflows of the river Chitral (Kunar) in mountains of the southern Hindu Kush in about ́ a circle Chitral of the province Hayber - Pakhtunkhva (Pakistan). The native language - a galosh - belongs to dardsky group of the Indo-Iranian languages. Uniqueness of the people from all directions surrounded with the islamized neighbors is that its considerable part still practises the pagan religion which developed on the basis of the Indo-Iranian religion and substratny beliefs. The dardsky people inhabiting Chitral usually unanimously consider as a galosh natives of edge.
U a galosh occur legends that their ancestors came to Chitral through Bashgal and pushed aside the people kho on the North, in riverheads Chitral. Nevertheless language galosh blizkorodstvenen to language khovar. Perhaps, this legend reflects arrival in the 15th century in Chitral of aggressive nuristanoyazychny group which subdued the local dardoyazychny population. This group separated from the native speakers of a vaygala which are still calling themselves by kala š ü m, transferred to local population the self-name and many traditions, but was assimilated by it in the language plan. Idea of galoshes as natives is based on the fact that in former times galoshes inhabited more extensive area in Youzhny Chitrale where still many toponyms have kalashsky character. With loss of eagerness to fight of a galosh were in these parts forced gradually out or assimilated by carriers of the leading chitralsky language khovar. Settlements are located a galosh at the height of 1900-2200 m above sea level. Kalasha inhabit three lateral valleys formed by the right (western) inflows of the river Chitral (Kunar): Bumboret (galoshes. Mumret), Rumbur (Rukm) and Birir (Biriu), at distance about 20 km to the South from the city of Chitral. The first two valleys connect in lower reaches, in the third across the kalashsky ethnic territory conducts the pass height apprx. 3000 m. Passes through the western ridge conduct to Afghanistan, to the area of moving of a nuristansky nationality roll. Climate quite soft and damp. Average annual level of rainfall is 700-800 mm. Average temperature in the summer - 25 °C, in the winter - 1 °C. Valleys differ in fertility, slopes are covered with the oak woods.
galoshes gained Recently wide fame not only thanks to unique religion, but also a fair hair and eyes, usual for these people, that in the ancient time generated at the flat people of a legend galoshes as about descendants of soldiers of Alexander of Macedon, and today is sometimes treated in popular literature as heritage of “Nordic Aryans“ and an indicator of special proximity by a galosh to the European people. Nevertheless, the weakened pigmentation is characteristic only of part of population, the majority a galosh dark-hair also show the characteristic Mediterranean type inherent and to their flat neighbors. The homozygous inbridingovy depigmentation is characteristic in a varying degree of all surrounding people, the millennia the isolated endogamny conditions of mountain valleys living in with very weak inflow of a gene pool from the outside: nuristanets, dard, Pamir people, and also not Indo-European natives of burishy. The last genetic researches show that galoshes show a set gaplogroup, usual for Indo-the Afghan population. Typical Y - chromosomal gaplogruppa for a galosh are: L (25%), R1a (18,2%), G (18,2%), J2 (9,1%); mitochondrial (mtDNA): L3a (22,7%), H1 * (20,5%).  . However in joint researches of Institute of the general genetics of Vavilov, university of South California and Stendfordsky university, the separate paragraph in which it is said that their genes are really unique is devoted to galoshes and belong to the European group. The economy a galosh, like the nuristansky people, is founded on the dichotomy of cattle breeding and agriculture which is traditionally assigned respectively to men (first of all by young men) and women. However unlike nuristanets of a galosh practically do not breed cattle; the main object of cultivation, as well as at all archaic dardsky people, - goats around whom numerous traditions, a taboo and folklore are under construction. On mountain summer pastures unmarried guys are engaged in a pasture of goats. Goat milk - one of the main food, at the same time to women is authorized to use it only fresh. The face of cattle passes in a festive atmosphere, it is authorized to women to eat only meat of females. Sheep breeding - much less ritualizirovanny sphere. Women sow wheat, barley and millet on the irrigated fields. During modern times these cultures are restricted more and more by the corn yielding good harvests in Chitrale. Also collecting a walnut, mulberry and grapes is conducted, wine is made of the last. Kalasha are divided into ekzogamny childbirth (galoshes. deri, kh. kam), being also cult unit.
the Center of a patrimonial cult serves the board covered with a carving representing the goddess Dzheshtak (J ē ṣ ṭ ak), patroness of related communications, or “temple“ (J ē ṣ ṭ ak - h ā n, “the house Dzheshtak“) - the room for dances and meetings. In a social system, as well as at nuristanets, an important role is played by “ranks“. The person wishing to deserve respect of tribespeople and higher place in public hierarchy and also other ritual and social rights (to lift “prestige“), arranges on the means “a holiday of merits“ of type the potlatch representing a ritual feast to which all fellows villager are invited. “Rank“ of the person is defined by his “merits“ before society - the means spent for a holiday, first of all scotomas. The arranged such holiday receives a vote in meeting of foremen of the village and the right for installation of a posthumous statue. Before “rank“ it was possible to deserve also thanks to military “merits“ (attacks on neighbors and murder of enemies). Earlier there was not full layer of handicraftsmen considerably limited in the ritual and social rights, coming from the neighbors stolen by galoshes in slavery. In due time handicraftsmen most quicker accepted Islam. Marriage at a galosh mainly monogamous, women use considerable freedom and can dissolve a marriage on the initiative. Kalasha`s
- the only people of the region which partially kept traditional religion and are not turned completely into Islam. Religious isolation by a galosh began in the head of the 18th century when they were subordinated mekhtary by Chitral`s (governor) and appeared under the cultural pressure of the related people kho, turned by then into Islam. In general the chitralsky policy differed in relative tolerance, and the Islamization of the region which is carried out by Sunni mullahs and Ismaili preachers had quite spontaneous and gradual character. When carrying out in the 19th century of the line of Durant of a galosh remained in the British possession that saved them from the mass violent address to Islam which is carried out in 1896 by the Afghan emir Abdur - Rahman in the neighboring Nuristan. Nevertheless cases of the address to Islam a galosh happened over all contemporary history of the people. The quantity them increased after 1970 - x years when to the region ways were paved and in settlements a galosh schools began to be under construction.
leads the Address to Islam to a rupture of traditional ties as one of kalashsky foremen Saifulla Gian speaks: “If someone from a galosh addresses in Islam, they cannot live among us any more“. As notes To. Yettmar, galoshes - Muslims with undisguised envy look at kalashsky pagan dances and cheerful festivals. Now the pagan religion attracting attention of numerous European tourists is under protection of the Pakistani government which is afraid of dying down of the tourist`s industry in case of a final “celebration of Islam“. Nevertheless Islam and Islamic culture of the next people exerts a great influence on life a galosh - pagans and their beliefs which are filled with plots and motives of Muslim mythology. Kalasha adopted men`s wear and names at neighbors. Under the pressure of a civilization the traditional way of life gradually collapses, in particular, fall “holidays of merits“ into oblivion. Nevertheless still valleys a galosh represent the unique reserve keeping one of the most archaic Indo-European cultures.
Traditional representations by a galosh about the world are based on opposition of sanctity and sewage. The highest sanctity mountains and mountain pastures where gods live have and “their cattle“ - wild goats is grazed. Also altars and goat sheds are sacred. Are dirty the earth of Muslims. Not purity is also inherent in the woman, especially during the periods monthly and childbirth. Defilement brings everything, connected with death. Like Vedic religion and Zoroastrianism the religion a galosh provides numerous ceremonies of clarification from filth. The pantheon a galosh (devalog) in general is similar to the pantheon existing at neighbors - nuristanets, and includes many deities of the same name, though differs from the last a little.
ideas also Are had of numerous lowest spirits - demons, first of all a female. Sanctuaries a galosh represent the altars constructed under the open sky from boards of a juniper or an oak and arranged by ritual carved boards and idols of deities. Special constructions are constructed for religious dances. Rituals by a galosh consist first of all in public feasts to which gods are invited. The ritual role of the young young men who did not learn the woman yet, that is possessing the highest purity is brightly expressed.
For reference: Darda`s
- the designation of the people of the general Indo-Iranian (Aryan) origin long since inhabiting Gingukushsko which settled in scientific literature - the Himalaya region. Languages of the dardsky people usually are considered as genetically uniform group of strongly dispersed languages, the closest to the Indo-Iranian.
Dartsky languages traditionally are considered as early the departed subgroup of the last though now the classifications giving them the status of separate group in the Indo-Iranian branch are developed. Nuristantsa`s
- the people considerably approaching darda in the field of material and spiritual culture, and also the general areal lexicon are considered as a separate linguistic community now.
majority Religion a galosh - paganism; their pantheon has many common features with reconstructed to the dreena - an Aryan pantheon. Statements of some journalists that galoshes worship “Ancient Greek gods“, are groundless. At the same time about 3 thousand a galosh - Muslims. Transition to Islam is not welcomed by the galoshes trying to keep the patrimonial identity. Kalasha are not descendants of soldiers of Alexander of Macedon, and the North European appearance of part of them has a talk preservation of an initial Indo-European gene pool as a result of refusal of mixture with the alien non Aryan population. Along with galoshes similar anthropological characteristics also representatives of the people of a hunz and some ethnic groups of pamirets, Persians possess, etc. Scientists carry
a galosh to white race - it is the fact. Persons at many a galosh - purely European. Skin white unlike Pakistanis and Afghans. And light and often igoluby eyes - as the passport incorrect - the kaffir. At an eye galosh blue, gray, green and very seldom brown. There is one more stroke which does not fit into the general for residents of Pakistan and Afghanistan culture and life in any way. Kalasha always made for themselves and used furniture. They eat at a table, sitting on chairs, - excesses which were never inherent in local “natives“ and appeared in Afghanistan and Pakistan only with arrival of British to XVIII - the XIX centuries, but did not get accustomed. And galoshes from time immemorial used tables and chairs...
And nevertheless who such galoshes?
On language as you can see, it it is difficult to define.
On religion - too, though clear that these people have religion, other than surrounding
of the people, but what the religion is. Or it is religion of one of
groups ancient ariyev - option of Zoroastrianism or more ancient belief.
On skin color, a hair also I blossom an eye - too doubtfully. It gives us only that
of a galosh the origin do not belong to the local (native) people, and
appeared here (I allow several options) from Macedonia, from Youzhny of Ural
(the homeland ancient ariyev), from Southern Siberia (there too there lived arias, but there lived also
ancient Ugra - the Ural people, ancestors of Hungarians), from the Western China (there lived
the ancient tokharsky people - they externally too are similar on a galosh).
is that galoshes are descendants of army of Alexander of Macedon and so far wait for it, I doubt as I after Alexander`s death, remained here is long the empire Selevkidov (Selevk - one of Alexander`s commanders), and in this state all knew about Alexander`s death. Besides the long time in these parts existed Greco - the Baktriysky state and in it knew about Alexander`s death too. It is just beautiful legend for inducement of tourists on the North of Pakistan.
To find out this question I will conduct research of all the materials on history of the North of Pakistan, the North of India (in the ancient time history of India and Pakistan was the general) and North - the East of Afghanistan with the purpose to reveal what people passed across this territory and could remain here to turn in modern a galosh.
(From the North) to this area Aryans were the first new newcomers. Though now call arias of all ancient Indians and ancient Iranians (the first written monuments of Indians - “Regveda“ and Iranians - “Avesta“ are in many respects similar), I speak about arias Indians. If it were the Indian tribes which came from Central Asia, then they hardly to be ancestors a galosh (they were swarty and dark-haired. But ancient Indians had many tribes and they inhabited (interfered) the North several waves and perhaps the most northern Indians came is later and they came from more northern areas (for example from steppes of Northern Kazakhstan or the South of the Urals, they quite approach for a role of ancestors a galosh, so they were light-hair and had light skin. Besides religion ancient Indo-ariyev in those days (and it were 14 - 13 century. dne) it was similar to religion of ancient Greeks (doriyets, etoliyets, Ionians). God of the sky Dyaus corresponds to the Greek god Zeus, god of the Sun Surya - to the Greek Helios, god Varuna - to Uranium, the goddess of a dawn Ushas - Eos. And doriyets began to interfere (to occupy) Greece in 12 - 11 century too. dne, that is it turns out both ancient Indians and ancient Greeks perhaps left in the same territory (but diversely) came to the different countries at the same time. Greeks read out the gods giperboreysky (from the North). Indians to India came from the North too. That and others have general archaeological roots. It is pit (drevneyamky) archaeological culture which existed in 4 - 3 - one thousand m dne in steppes of Eurasia from Irtysh to Danube.
Still we will agree that I consider the events only which are taking place in Punjab (North - the West of India), it is that area in which galoshes live, it is possible to tell that it is the most northern suburb of this area, in the ancient time it still was called as Gandkhar.
On the cards relating to 327 dne was in this area the city of Kalisha which was taken by Alexander of Macedon this year, moving to Taxila (North - the West of India). This city perhaps was the center of the tribe (people) a galosh, large in those days, quite it could leave part of the soldiers who are especially wounded there. If to consider as a galosh of a predkasa northern Indo-ariyev, then the strong divergence in religion between Greeks, Macedonians and galoshes was not, and they could shelter quietly part of Greeks and makedontsev.
in the middle of 2 centuries dne at the tsar Menandr Greco - the Baktriysky kingdom amplified also Greco - baktriysky troops occupied Gandkhara`s territory, that is at the population the element of Greeks and bakiriyets was added. For information - baktriyets, the iranoyazychny people which as well as Persians came from the North, but occupied the territory of Tajikistan and the North of Afghanistan. Their religion also did not contradict religion a galosh and baktriyets were not really swarty, especially mountain baktriyets too.
B 1 - m dne - the Western India from Central Asia got a century into Severo iranoyazychny tribes of juice, as a result there were formed Indo-the saksky states. For reference, Saky, it is the iranoyazychny tribes wandering a long time in the south of Kazakhstan and in Central Asia (to a gain of Central Asia Akhemenidami). Alexander of Macedon was at war with them, calling them Scythians (they of course were related to Scythians and Sarmatians), he could not subordinate these nomad tribes. The religion of juice was also close to religion a galosh. Saky was light-skin too, but generally with dark hair. They could affect ethnogenesis modern a galosh too.
Approximately in 140 - 130 dne on the territory Bactria with North - the East (from Severo`s territory - the Western China - modern Uyguriya) intruded tribes yuechzhy (so Chinese called tribes of tokhar). Tokhara - the Indo-European people which lodged in Severo - East China till 1500 dne. Chinese described them as white-skinned and fair-haired people (they are carried even not to Indo-Iranians, and to more western Indo-European tribes - they are strongly similar to Slavs and Germans). Their religion was not similar on Persian (Zoroastrianism), it all was quicker similar to Old Slavic or Old German pagan religion, that is was close to religion a galosh.
One of associations of tokhar - Kushana, completely seized power in Bactria and created the strong Kushansky state. This state subordinated to itself not only Gandkhara`s territory, but also znasitelny part considered by us North - the western India. Tokhara very much could even affect strongly ethnogenesis a galosh. Still the interesting fact - the city of Kalisz existed at the time of the Kushansky state, means at this time the people a galosh were considerable the people if their center of Kalisz existed.
After Kushan of the earth a galosh got under the power of the empire Guptov, then - Sasanidov.
at the beginning of the 8th century intruded in India Arabs, but could not conquer it.
In 1001 (to Punjab) intruded in India Muslim troops of the state Gaznevidov. The territory a galosh began to be exposed to violent Islamization from now on. Further we will not consider history of the North of Pakistan (the territory which is earlier inhabited by ancestors a galosh).
From everything above-considered it is possible to draw the following conclusions.
1. The most probable is that galoshes are ancestors of northern group Indo-ariyev, appeared on North - the West of India, and this group came after all therefore remained on North - the West of India in Gandkhare.
2. There is a probability that in formation of a nakod a galosh accepted other Indo-European people - tokhara, but they could not influence strongly religion, they could transfer to galoshes signs of a fair hair only.
3. The probability that galoshes are descendants of troops of Alexander of Macedon is very small though absolutely this factor of impact on formations modern a galosh cannot be excluded completely.