What household technologies changed our world? The refrigerator
Refrigerators appeared, generally, quite recently. In the 19th century. And at once changed the world. And household refrigerators available to the consumer appeared in a century of XX - and strongly changed our life. Who is more senior than
- remembers about life without refrigerators, and for those who are younger, has to tell that the person, being a being exclusively cunning, lived also without refrigerators, thinking out himself his quite effective substitutes.
By the way, in the south of the country, in places where frosts in the winter - a rarity, perishable goods from olden days stored in cellars. There and in the summer, during a heat, rather cool to decide to store there both milk, and oil, and other. But it - in the rural house.
And in the multi-storey building? There too found various ways to get out. There were also refrigerating boxes which are built in a window painted white ventilated by external air and covered in the summer with wet rags - that the evaporating water provided fall of temperature of a product. But you will not put in such box of a kilogram of sausage in the summer, will go out. Grams 200-300 oils or sausages were the compelled purchase limit - that the food did not manage to deteriorate.
Probably, from the moment of emergence of pioneer settlements of Slavs in them there were cellars - glaciers. In the same St. Petersburg in the winter on Neva for preparation of ice for glaciers allocated special sites of the river. Sawyers of ice cut pieces of ice, sold them - and again came back to the river, to saw again accrued thick ice. Father Frost worked in this business round the clock all winter, restoring an ice cover of the river.
In cellar frosts - glaciers were aired, new ice was loaded into them and the remains of old, last year`s ice were unloaded. But then, in the spring, in the summer and in the fall bought was stored at an optimum temperature. Well, directly, as in the present refrigerator!
To the middle of the 19th century in city conditions were widely operated... let`s tell - “a pr - refrigerators“, or the “house glaciers“ representing cases for storage of products with good thermal insulation and the office filled by purchased chipped ice. Ice gradually thawed, the cold was in a cupboard, and there it was possible to store perishable goods safely. It was necessary only not to forget to buy new ice - and to merge from the pallet water from thawed.
But in 1850 the American doctor John Gori showed process of creation of artificial ice on the basis of which subsequently and the first refrigerators were created. The idea to create refrigerating devices of almost modern type - with compressors and use as ammonia coolant - was realized in Germany in 1879.
An opportunity to store perishable goods at low temperatures allowed to enter the world market of sale of meat to Argentina and other countries of South America. On extensive plains of Argentina and its neighbors the animal husbandry prospered, but the received meat could be used only at itself as to transport herds of bulls and cows by the sea - it is extremely expensive and difficult, and meat for several weeks hopelessly spoiled.
However with the invention of refrigerators the same meat, but frozen - quietly could reach both to America, and to the countries of Europe. The animal husbandry of South America (and in general - all countries, remote from consumers, - producers) received a powerful impulse of development. At the same time transportation of fruit at temperatures promoted emergence in the markets of the countries of Europe of once exotic fruit made in far southern regions slightly above zero.
Vessels - refrigerators, cars - refrigerators, motor vans - refrigerators, industrial refrigerators and deep freezes - the most important part of logistics of the modern food industry, without them are impossible transportation, storage on place of production and on the place of consumption of a huge number of food, dairy, meat products, vegetables and fruit.
And what cannot be transported and sold - most likely, just is not made.
Therefore it is possible to tell that exactly thanks to the invention of refrigerators increase in production of meat and dairy products, and also growth of orchards and vegetable plantations in the southern, more adapted for this purpose regions became possible.