How people were accustomed to smoking?
Tobacco was one of the first products delivered from the American colonies to Europe. The first tobacco plantation in the British colony of Virginia was founded in 1584. To provide a sales market of this “useful“ plant, Europeans (first of all, British and Dutches) began to accustom to smoking.
In America tobacco was preferred to be chewed. To chew and spit out. The show is not esthetic. Where as the gentleman with a short tubule in teeth looked more beautifully. This tubule, by the way, in one of Indian languages of Central America was called “tobacco“. From here and name of a plant.
French smelled tobacco that looked even more gracefully. Fashion on snuff tobacco Jean Nicko (Jean Nicot) (1530-1600) entered . Being the ambassador of the French king in Lisbon, he saw here the fragrant flower brought from Brazil which in Portugal was called “petunia“. Nicko brought seeds of this plant to the estate and began it to grow up there. He ordered to make fragrant powder which presented to Ekaterina Medici of dried leaves of tobacco. It was pleasant to smell tobacco to the queen, and the fashion rushed to it in broad masses. Besides, as it became clear, tobacco powder was fine means against fleas who then overcame all court. What is not sophisticated as ladies and gentlemen washed seldom, preferring to muffle a stench of a dirty body a smell of perfume.
Zh. Nicko some time was a monopolist in production of tobacco and, apparently, took the quite good income from new hobby of French. This plant in honor of Zh. Nicko received the name “nikotian“. Already in 19 - m a century chemists emitted from pleasantly smelling tobacco leaves substance which called nicotine .
Nicotine in high doses was strong poison. What physicians honestly warned about: the drop of nicotine kills a horse. Warned, vainly hoping that the fatal death of an animal will force also people to refuse smoking.
As if not so! It turned out that nicotine has narcotic effect on an organism and causes accustoming. To wean from tobacco smoking, the fair effort is required.
Not smaller efforts were spent for attaching mankind to dependence on tobacco.
The English firm Phillip Morris in 1902 opened the office in New - York. In the American market cigarettes with the noble name “Marlboro“ appeared. They found the consumer. Much less cigars cost cigarettes. And they differed from tubes in simplicity of use. Got from a pack - and a resin!
Other tobacco companies, having found such huge market, too began mass release of cigarettes. At the same time fight for expansion of number of buyers began.
After World War I which did not promote growth of morals at all women were acquainted with tobacco. Which were represented before, and, above all, felt, beings gentle and fragile. Now the tobacco companies created an image of the fatal beauty who held a cigarette in pretentiously curved hand. Tobacco factories especially for women “facilitated“ the production.
World War II began. In a wartime the number of smokers increased. Cigarettes joined in a soldier`s diet. Respectively, already huge profits of the tobacco companies increased. Coming back from war, men were already ready consumers of cigarettes.
At the end of 1940 - x, at the beginning of 1950 - x years on the consumer lowered all “advertizing dogs“. The tobacco companies were nearly the richest advertisers. Respectively, cigarettes became one of the most advertized goods.
Massive advertizing worked. All began to smoke, began to smoke early. It was beautiful to smoke, it was fashionable to smoke. Profits of the tobacco companies read off scale. Of course, and expenses of these companies on advertizing were estimated in billions of dollars. No European, Asian and African totalitarian modes allocated such funds for promotion. Respectively, results of an action of introduction in public consciousness of idea about need of smoking of tobacco were unlike more successful than ideological zombiing of the same masses.
However, we recognize that to advertize the tobacco products which are constantly renewed and “putting on“ in more and more beautiful “clothes“, more simply than an image of the Favourite Leader. What the image, in - the first, is not replaced by definition, and in - the second, only worsens eventually.
However all good comes to an end. Several people who developed lung cancer made to the tobacco companies multimillion claims, accusing them of aggression and totality of tobacco advertizing which plunged into dependence on smoking of simple and healthy people. The court recognized claims of claimants reasonable. The tobacco companies had to pay huge compensations.
Lawyers of the tobacco companies were not less cunning, than lawyers of claimants. They saw at once that it is necessary to fight not against concrete claims of specific claimants. It is necessary to fight for the formulation of a judgment favorable to the tobacco companies. Such formulation which would not become dangerous precedent and which would exclude a possibility of giving by millions of smokers of similar claims that would ruin branch.
But all the same the wheel twirled in the opposite direction. General fight for a healthy lifestyle was developed in serious scales. Smokers not only were moved away from glossy pages and from screens. They were begun to be forced out from all public places, on streets and in gates.
I do not smoke, and fight against smoking does not concern me. I only with grief look, that, as always, pay off not so much fooling how many fooled. However, promotion by promotion, however it is desirable to be able to think even at the most massive advertizing, even at the most totalitarian regime. Possibly, it is the most important lesson which were taught to us by the mad twentieth century.