Dante Alighieri: architect of a next world?
in one city, except Florence, you will not find Ada Street (Via dell` Inferno). Even the parking from auto repair shop which is on this street is called Garage Inferno, “Infernal garage“. And near still there is Chistilishcha (Via del Purgatorio) Street. However, there is no Ry Street in Florence. Tourists are surprised to
, but understand. Florence - Dante`s homeland, the author of “The divine comedy“. From a great number of the famous Florentines whose statues in the 19th century were put in niches of the building of Uffizi Gallery, Dante Alighieri`s (Dante Alighieri) (1265-1321) , perhaps, the best-known.
Though Dante is not a real name of the poet, but a children`s nickname, reduction from the name given at a baptism, Duranta. The baptism took place on May 26, as was recorded, and here when the poet was born, we can only assume.
Dante was born in a patrician family. Otherwise the information about him would be at us much less. Any low-native Florentines passed on life quietly and left without mention in city chronicles. However, and political storms not really influenced their destiny. The shoemaker, the painter - the artist or the jeweler are necessary to any authorities.
Dante, when in 1302 the hostile party came to the power in the city, was expelled from Florence as the enemy of the people and until the end of life to the hometown did not come back any more. Now it is difficult for us to remember who such gibbelina and who - gvelfa, and especially not to tell, than white gvelfa (to which Dante belonged) differed from gvelf black (which expelled him). But life of the poet changed abruptly.
By then already the father of three children, he appeared in the foreign land. Children visited the father in exile, the wife never came to it. What, however, he not too mourned about.
Dante`s wife was called Gemma. It belonged to the Florentine clan of Donati. This clan was at enmity with Alighieri`s clan probably not worse, than Shakespearean Montecchi with Capuleti. But in this case did not reach a tragic ending. The conflict of clans was settled a marriage of children.
Dante and Gemma`s history did not come to the end like “Romeo and Juliette“ at least also because no love between them existed. There was also no usual love triangle in such cases. Or rather, love triangle was, but it turned out very unusual. As other woman so never also learned that she is loved.
In 9 years Dante fell in love with the daughter of one of neighbors whom called Beatrice. It was the love for the rest of life. Their second meeting took place when 18 years, and Beatrice - 17 were Dante. The girl went down the street accompanied by two elderly women. On Beatrice there was a white dress. She greeted the neighbour`s young man with whom she, of course, was familiar. But it still knew nothing about love of which to it.
Dante and Beatrice belonged to one circle of the city nobility, but Dante did not approach the beloved, being afraid that his feelings will become known to her. In the similar strange relations there passed life.
Duration of human life is small also presently, and those years it was and is shorter than that. When at the age of 35 years Dante began “Comedy“ with words “Mortal life having passed to a half“ , he realized that it is artistic license. The few from his contemporaries lived till 70 years. Beatrice released 24 terrestrial years. From them three last she was married.
For Dante Beatrice remained the most important woman in life. And it entered the died beloved into “Comedy“, having given it - neither more nor less - lines and privileges of the maiden Maria. On its command to Dante the conductor on a next world, the Roman poet Virgil is, she is Dante`s defender from dangers in his long rise from infernal depths to the highest tops of the paradise sky. Exactly there is a meeting of beloved.
Dante was called the architect of a next world, and not for nothing. It so majestically it described that since then this picture forever took root into consciousness of Europeans. Some contemporaries, meeting Dante, seriously believed that smuglovaty skin of the poet is burned with an infernal flame during its real travel to an underworld.
The Christian picture of a next world developed several centuries. By the end of the 13th century when there lived Dante, it was very intricate design consisting of two offices. Underground Hell intended for souls of sinners and was the place of their posthumous tortures. The word “hell“ comes from the Ancient Greek name of gloomy Hades where, according to ancient Greeks, souls of the dead forever left.
The dwelling of souls of righteous persons was placed in heaven. Its Italian name “paradiso“ through Latin and Ancient Greek language goes back to the Persian word “pardes“, “sad“. The souls which got here enjoy pleasure and rest.
But pleasure to pleasure discord. As well posthumous tortures of sinners can (and have to) to be very various. So neither in paradise, nor in hell there is no equality, and there is a system of levels, obvious to the person living in the hierarchical feudal world. In hell - nine circles which are gradually narrowed to the center of the earth. Hell, thus, is a huge funnel.
Paradise, in turn, are nine heavenly spheres, conducting to the center of the universe where there is a paradise rose. It is fancy reflection in consciousness of the medieval person of an Ancient Greek cosmogony with seven heavenly spheres on which seven known then planets went.
In a Catholic picture of a kingdom of the dead there was one more, intermediate office, the Purgatory. The purgatory gave the chance to reach posthumous pleasure that whose sins were small for hell, and there was not enough carrying power of righteousness for rise in paradise monastery.
Prayers live (and that is not less important, their handouts on good causes) can improve the provision of souls deceased, being in the Purgatory, and eventually, in principle, even to lift them to paradise. It is necessary to tell, the cunning idea giving hope to live.
In Orthodoxy there is no Purgatory, however there is an apocryphal story about circulation of the Virgin on torments too giving vague hope for rescue of soul even to sinners.
In Dante Cistiliscie`s “Comedy“ is on other side of Earth, in the southern hemisphere, and represents the mountain in the middle of the ocean. The mountain has nine ledges and rises to heaven where connects to Paradise doors.
To describe a similar majestic picture of the universe, having filled it with heroes (often the contemporaries), it is necessary to be the outstanding poet, undoubtedly. So the poetic glory of Dante is quite deserved.
One more his huge merit - creation of literary Italian. Though poetic prayers of Saint Francis of Assisi were the first literary work in Italian, Dante is considered the founder of modern Italian literature. And its “Comedy“ from an easy hand of one of the first admirers, Giovanni Boccaccio, is marked with an epithet “Divine“.
By the way, and why “Comedy“? Yes by the general rule of literature of that time. If the literary work had a happy-end, about it reported to the reader already in the name. And what can be happier than such end when the reader sees Paradise, and the author - meets the beloved as if that would never die?