For what Maria Sklodovskaya - Curie got the Nobel Prize twice?
When in 1896 Maria Sklodovskaya - Curie became interested in opening of the scientist A. Bekkerel who found out that salts of uranium let out the getting beams, she did not know that she will get to epicenter scientifically - technical interests of the XX century. It is about radioactivity - the greatest opening which presented to mankind opportunities unprecedented hitherto.
In the crude and gloomy cellar of institute of physics in Paris Maria Sklodovskaya - Curie began to study this strange thing. Soon the husband - the scientist Pierre Curie joined it, and spouses indulged in studying of uranium ore from different mines.
Soon they understood that some samples are much more radioactive, than others, and assumed that they contain chemical elements unknown to science. Having processed eight tons of ore, in the summer of 1898 they declared discovery of polonium, and in December of the same year - radium detection.
But to prove the case, they should have presented to scientific community at least scanty amount of these substances - radium so quickly breaks up that in ore there are only its traces. For this purpose the laboratory and personnel was necessary for scientists, but the management of Sorbonne refused to Curie`s family allocations.
Scientists did not give up - having occupied the thrown shed with a glass roof, they asked the Austrian academy of Sciences to petition granting this country of radioactive ore by the government. While the husband studied properties of a new element four long years in the terrifying conditions without ventilation and heating, Maria was engaged in release of pure radium - dragging bags with material, mixing ore in flasks, tubs, defending and distilling And all this out-of-pocket protection against radiation!
However, Maria considered that in life there is nothing that should be been afraid, eat only what needs to be understood!. In intervals between experiences scientists managed to bring two daughters - Iren Zholio - Curie (who vposledsviya became a chemist and got the Nobelesky award in chemistry in 1935 - m to year) and Ewa Curie, the journalist who wrote the book about the great mother.
But we will return to researches of radioactivity. In 1902 there was a break - Sklodovskaya - Curie was succeeded to receive several decigrams of pure salt of radium, and in 1910 (together with the French chemist A. Debyern) - metal radium then the nuclear weight of radium and its place in Mendeleyev`s table was determined.
Before spouses there was a question of patenting of the opening - however despite constant material difficulties, they refused it, having gratuitously presented to mankind the invention. Scientists considered that receiving commercial profit does not correspond to spirit of science and idea of free access to knowledge though this patent would solve many financial problems which pursued their family all life.
However, in 1903 for studying of radioactivity to Curie`s spouses the Nobel Prize on physics was awarded. And in 1911 Maria Sklodovskaya - Curie got the Nobel Prize in chemistry, the stavpervy scientist and the only woman who received this prestigious award twice.