How Fridtjof Nansen submitted the North Pole? The Norwegian scientist and the traveler, the researcher of a pole Fridtjof Nansen told
: “In human life romanticism is necessary. It gives to the person divine forces for travel on that side of the ordinary“.
the Scientist differed in the unrestrained will power allowing it to go towards the aim despite inhuman difficulties and conditions. At the end of the 19th century he went to the North Pole, investigated polar regions and made an invaluable contribution not only to science and cartography, but also to art to survive where it cannot even be presented.
Nansen assumed that the ice belt surrounding the Arctic is not on the place, and drifts. It suggested to him a revolutionary idea - to construct the ship which at the same time will become zimovochny station, and together with the drifting ices to reach the North Pole.
In 1893 a sailing vessel “Fram“ of the special design allowing to sustain an impact of ices started from New Siberian Archipelago and soon, on October 5, froze in ice, having begun the long travel across the Arctic. In a year of drift Nansen understood that ices move not as he counted, taking away “Fram“ to the South from the purpose. Then he with one more participant of expedition, Jalmar Johansen, made the decision to go to a pole on skis, having left other command to drift. Having shipped equipment, kayaks and provisions to the sledge harnessed by draft dogs, on March 14, 1895 they went to a way.
Tests which they had to endure are beyond human opportunities. They had to overcome frosts between - 40 °C and - 30 °C, ice hummocks, breaks, blizzards and attacks of the Arctic animals. The weakened dogs perished one behind one, and soon travelers had to drag equipment on themselves. During terrible frosts they freezed fingers and failed under young ice. When in the spring ice began to thaw, they had to sleep literally in water, enclosing skis. Once the seal unstitched a board of a kayak and Nansen nearly died, another time a flaw of the boat carried away in the sea with all equipment - then the traveler, risking life, jumped in ice water and drove kayaks back.
In addition it turned out that their chronograph is faulty and they cannot define the exact location. Nansen made the decision to winter on Jackson`s island. In the dugout constructed by them where temperature did not rise above zero, they carried out from August 28, 1895 to May 19, 1896, being attacked by packs of polar foxes. By spring their supplies became covered by a fungus and deteriorated, and travelers starved two weeks while Nansen did not manage to kill a bear. On May 21, 1896 researchers went to a way, expecting to reach Spitsbergen.
… They were on the verge of despair until on June 17, 1896 unexpectedly came across the English research camp. In spite of the fact that that time the traveler did not manage to reach the North Pole, on August 13, 1896 Nansen returned to Norway the national hero, and on August 20 “Fram“, as well as was planned, left ice captivity and returned on water back with a full team.
Unrestrained will power and aspiration to achieve the objectives, despite any difficulties - all this allowed Nansen to survive where it is almost impossible, having once again shown force and power of human spirit.