Why the expert of pedagogics A.S. Makarenko is forgotten? To 125 - to summer anniversary of
Remember when you last time heard a mention of Makarenko? In connection with some serious article on a subject about education of younger generation? In any public discussion about questions of education? I doubt. Most likely in usual conversation in an ironical context: the pier, too to me, Makarenko was...
1988 the special decision of UNESCO was declared year by Makarenko in connection with it 100 - summer anniversary. Then the names of four great teachers who defined a way of pedagogical thinking of the 20th century were told is A.S. Makarenko, D. Dewey, M. Montessori and G. Kershenshteyner.
Makarenko`s works were transferred almost to all national languages, and his main work - - compare “The pedagogical poem“ (1935) to the best novels of education of Zh. Zh. Russo, I. Goethe, L. N. Tolstoy. It is also called one of ten most considerable books on education of the 20th century. Whether this sign of the international respect and recognition of merits?
And in Russia ten years ago to 115 - oh to anniversary Makarenko released 10 000 copies of the first unabridged edition of “The pedagogical poem“. You will tell that for strange circulation for the multimillion reading country? However publishers still puzzle how to realize the “unsellable“ book.
Unmodernly? Neaktulno? Probably, did not remain in pedagogics of unresolved problems, well-educated girls and boys obediently go to school, and children`s crime on zero?
Nearly hundred years ago, graduating from the Poltava teacher`s institute, Makarenko wrote the diploma on the subject “Crisis of Modern Pedagogics“. Who will make bold to claim that now the situation was changed radically?
He was a strange person, this Makarenko. Having worked two years at normal school, the silent, modest teacher of history throws everything and goes to work as the director of a colony for minor criminals near Poltava. He directed it from 1920 to 1928 and comprehended re-education pedagogics in fighting conditions as the soldier in the battlefield.
What moved this person? It was obvious that the resolute act it puts an end to quiet measured life. Perhaps, that active living position about which it became unfashionable to speak recently?
At the beginning of 20 - x in Russia which endured revolution and civil war there were more than 7 million street children. They represented huge social trouble and danger. The huge contribution brought A.S. Makarenko in fight against children`s crime and homelessness.
The system of re-education invented by it useful productive work in collective turned concourse of juvenile criminals into amicable solid team. In a colony there was no protection, fences, a punishment cell. Boycott to which resorted extremely seldom was the most severe punishment. When escorted by brought the next homeless child, he took the child and refused flatly to accept his personal record. It is the known makarenkovsky principle of advancing good in the person! “We want to know Myne about you bad. New life begins!“
is difficult to believe In these figures, but the fact - a thing stubborn. Through Makarenko`s hands there passed more than 3000 homeless children, and any (!) did not return on the criminal way, all found the road to lives, became people. Any correctional facility did not manage to achieve such results in the world. Not for nothing it is called not only the theorist, but also the practician of mass and fast re-education.
Makarenko was sure that only work to liking, but without having sewed mittens and bonding of boxes promotes successful re-education. From 1928 to 1936 he directs a labor commune of Dzerzhinsky and from scratch builds two plants on production of electromecanics and FED cameras, i.e. a high tech of the time. Children could master difficult technologies, successfully worked and gave production which is in huge demand. Safely, isn`t that so? Try to imagine a colony for juvenile criminals which makes anti-virus programs or computer prefixes!
He was a surprising person, this Makarenko. Clean exempted from military service because of poor health - congenital heart disease, awful short-sightedness and still whole “bunch“ of diseases - loved a military uniform, discipline, an army order.
Having absolutely modest appearance - round points with thick glasses, the big nose, a low hoarse voice - had success in beautiful women. It, laconic and sluggish, pupils adored and so jealously treated it that he decided not to marry that not to injure them. By the way, and made: only having left pedagogical work, he undersigned with the common-law wife.
Loved children, but unfortunately had no, however brought up two receptions. The girl, the daughter of the brother, the White Guard who was in time to emigrate to France became mother of the famous actress Ekaterina Vasilyeva subsequently. And he maintained the relations till 1937 with the beloved brother until the wife exhausted with constant fear of arrest demanded to stop correspondence.
He died of a cardiac rupture at the age of 51 year, and it was the hard blow for world pedagogics. Makarenko`s system is studied and appreciated around the world. So, in Japan its works are republished in the mass editions and are considered as obligatory literature for heads of the enterprises. Practically all firms are under construction on curves of colonies of Makarenko.
Home, the system comes back to Russia in the form of foreign techniques of “brainstorming“, “abilities to work in team“, “ty - a bilding“, “increases of motivation of the employee“. All this is diligent studied on various trainings and seminars, besides for considerable money. It is or perhaps simpler to read primary sources?
Breaking laws of a genre, I, unfortunately, cannot answer the question raised in article heading. Let it will join two other favourite questions of Russian intelligentsia “What to do?“ and “Who is guilty?“.