What is symbiosis? Business connections in fauna of
“Children, let`s live in peace and friendship!“ - many remember words of a cat of Leopold from the animated film of Soviet period. To live in peace and friendship and all dream not to quarrel. The friend and friendship - for many not just words, and an integral part of life. Also it concerns not only us, people, but also dumb animals from fauna.
It is possible to explain, of course, everything from the scientific point of view only with influence of instincts, the unconscious processes happening under the influence of hormones. But we will not climb in a scientific jungle and we will leave these questions for scientific researchers. Let`s talk about such type of friendship between living beings as symbiosis.
Symbiosis is called the interaction of animal different types among themselves bringing them mutual benefit. And as generally life of any living being is reduced to the pishchedobyvayushchy and surviving functions, symbiosis is based on combination of these forms of behavior.
The brightest representatives of such close “commonwealth“, perhaps, it is possible to call symbiosis actinium and cancer - the hermit. And, when cancer passes children`s age and becomes so adult and independent that has the right to resolve an issue of delivery of the living space for rent, he finds and transfers to actinium to itself to a sink in which lives.
About true altruism here the speech cannot be as it is favorable both to the tenant - actinium, and to the lessor - cancer. Actinium protects the owner from attack of predatory fishes for whom it is very a tidbit. Cancer, in turn, migrating on a reservoir bottom, creates suitable conditions for food of the charming tenant as the lady cannot independently move.
But at the same time “a sea asterisk“, expanding and turning into the tube which accrued over a cancer body tries to take all sink. In this case the hermit should not change the apartments and the residence often. Despite the name, cancer nevertheless does not like to live in proud loneliness. And actinium - not his only cohabitant.
Other tenant of a tempting living space is the representative of mnogoshchetinkovy worms, he lives in the sink. And it is not gratuitous, and clearing the dwelling of the owner, that is carrying out functions of the housemaid. At the owner`s meal he leans out of a sink and “cleans“ food pieces.
The most curious that cancer does not even try to eat the cohabitant - a worm. Though will not refuse other such individuals. And changing the sink for more spacious, cancer - the hermit does not forget to transfer there and “housemaid“ - a worm. And about the beauty to actinium also does not forget, replaces to new “apartment“.
Not less interesting symbiosis is the commonwealth of a bird of a medoukazchik with her assistants. The inhabitant of South America likes to regale on larvae of wild bees. But here, unfortunately, she is not able to get them from a nest. For this hitrunye begins to make loud and sharp sounds which can attract the animals capable to ruin the nest occupied by bees.
Ukazchitsa come to the rescue bears. When the terrible animal ruins this dwelling and begins to regale on honeycombs, the aimer eats larvae much she gets which. What is interesting: also people use this feature of a bird, and often the feathery ukazchitsa establishes strong connection with a certain person, performing work of a police dog.
Interaction of living beings of different types is known long ago. So, for example, when bisons were not a rarity in America and were grazed in numerous herds, there was a friendship between a huge animal and a tiny bird - a volovy birdie. Making the numerous courses in dense hair of bisons, these birdies were fed with insects who inhabited animals, and also escaped from winter cold weather there. There is such symbiosis: we to you “roof“ and “lunch“ - you to us “cleaning“ and “cleaning“.
There is a lot of examples of such commonwealth in fauna. Business relations as we see, are inherent also in this extraordinary interesting, still the world, rather mysterious for us.