Refusal of negotiations - an error of the White movement?
To an early autumn of 1918 defeat of Germany and its allies became an obvious fact. Armies of the Entente successfully moved ahead on all fronts. An exit of Turkey from war opened to the ships of the Entente the Black Sea passages. On November 2 the fleet of allies was included into Dardanelless.
When World War I came to the end, on huge spaces of Russia the flame of Civil war inflamed.
In October, 1917 the Bolshevik party came to the power, having promised Russia - the world, the earth - to peasants, factories and plants - the worker, and all power - to the Constituent Assembly. However when it became clear that on elections to the Constituent Assembly Bolsheviks collected only 24%, it became clear that such meeting cannot give all power. Bolsheviks, having finished war imperialistic, began war civil. The huge country broke up to parts...
“The Russian question“ was beyond regional problems. One of problems was that for Bolsheviks revolution Russian served as a stage of world revolution, and white hoped for the help of the western allies. However the domestic situation in the Entente countries, despite the won victory, was very difficult. The fatigue from heavy war affected, it was necessary to solve an array of problems with transition of the countries to peace rails. On the one hand, political forces which for various reasons opposed intervention in civil war in Russia became more active, and with another - those who were disturbed by distribution of the Bolshevism acted, and they demanded to bring by force to Russia order...
On January 22, 1919 the president of the United States of America Woodrow Wilson addressed the conflicting parties with a curious initiative. The essence her is as follows: U.S. President on behalf of the Entente (that is the countries which won World War I) addresses all governments of Russia with the offer: to call a truce with ceasefire on the basis of preservation by each side of the territories occupied by then and to gather for peace conference for permission of the Russian crisis. The peace intermediary and the guarantor of carrying out conference - the USA (and personally V. Wilson). An estimated venue of conference - the Princes Islands in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey).
Lenin`s reaction to the proposal of allies was purely Bolshevist: in the telegram to Trotsky he demands from a narkomvoyenmor of activization of military operations on the Southern and East fronts that within a month to take Rostov, Chelyabinsk and Omsk, and at the end of the telegram notes: “To Wilson, perhaps, you should go“. The Red Army, naturally, could not execute so large-scale operation in January, 1919, the result of military operations was very uncertain, and on February 4 Chicherin, broadcasting a note, reported about readiness of the Soviet government to conduct negotiations with all interested parties.
Chicherin spoke about readiness of the Soviet government to achieve the agreement the price of serious concessions. For the sake of preservation of the power Lenin was ready to make concessions, as in the period of Brest. The desire to go for negotiations was declared by Lenin as desire to keep life of workers and peasants. Business here, of course, not in Lenin`s peacefulness and not in desire to keep life of workers and peasants. Just very much “secured“, threat voyenno - a political disaster to neglect any was just too big even if the most insignificant opportunity to escape. At this particular time Lenin will pronounce the words standing attention: “If we till winter do not conquer the Urals, then I consider death of revolution inevitable“.
Unfortunately, among leaders of the White movement. They did not understand value of the Urals as strong point of Russia - to crush red, white perfectly it was not obligatory to be torn in the center of the country. To them was to keep enough the Urals till winter.
It is known that after capture of Tsaritsyno on June 30, 1919 the general Denikin accepted the so-called “Moscow directive“ - that plan of approach to the capital which denikinets also tried to realize with consequences, very sad for themselves. And the general Wrangel offered alternative option - the “Ural directive“ which is that according to this plan the southern White Guards direct the main blow to the Urals, to the back to the red armies stepping on Kolchak. But the general Denikin did not go to the help to Kolchak...
So, white it was necessary to unite and defend across the Urals. To hold the fort across the Urals was not a complex problem - the nature for people thought over everything. At such succession of events and on condition of adoption of the plan of Wilson (about “preservation by each side of the territories occupied by then“) the coexistence in the territory of the former Russian Empire of two Russian states with a miscellaneous socially - a political system and way - a peculiar GDR and Germany of the Russian flood would be quite real.
“White Russia“ regarded Wilson`s proposal to sit down at a negotiating table with Bolsheviks “as new blow to the national dignity of the Russian people“. The prime minister - the minister of the Siberian government cabled to Paris about need “to continue fight against Bolsheviks by all means“. White, having overestimated the forces, refused peace talks.
For certain democratic circles of the West white became party of war, and red - party of the world.
It is difficult to present, events as if developed if white mudflows for a negotiating table with red. It would be other history. And, quite perhaps, not the worst. Now, when the truth of the Bolshevism was a falsehood, it is obvious that “white Russia“ would help “red Russia“ to get out of that bog into which the ruling Communist Party drove the country...