Rus Articles Journal

What main protocols in Internet and search in them?

the Standardized reference to telnet connection with some Internet hub (i.e. URL- the address of this connection) look so:
of telnet: / / Practically all information in the computer world is stored by
of FTP
in a type of files. On it at the dawn of Internet special means for file exchange on a network - the network FTP protocol (File Transfer Protocol) appeared.
the Number of the files available on knots of the whole world on anonymous FTP is measured by astronomical figures and constantly grows. Besides Word Wide Web allows without any alteration of the existing FTP archives, to supply them with descriptions of any degree of detail and the convenient hypertext interface.
of Archie
Search in a file name on all anonymous FTP - knots of the world can be carried out by means of the Archie system. It is developed by several programmers from McGill`s university in Canada and carries out indexing of FTP stations, showing available files in each station.

Archie does not divide the list into pages and it is the most convenient to look through it directly in process of receiving.
of URL - the address indicating FTP - connection, has to include, at least, the word “ftp“ as the left part and the knot address in right:
of ftp: / / .
of WAIS

Almost all information Internet resources give an opportunity of automatic search, but only in one of them - in the WAIS system (Wide Area Information Server, the global information server) - search in keywords, is the main method of access to information.
the WAIS System represents the huge distributed database, i.e. separate parts of this database are located on different knots of a network worldwide.

The client program for work with the WAIS servers not only is able to communicate with them under the special protocol, but also stores the list of all WAIS databases with their addresses and names, and sometimes and with short descriptions. There it is possible to find archives of teleconferences, various catalogs, reference books, collections of scientific articles and papers, indexes and slovoukazatel, and many other things. Practically any information for which the database is a convenient form representations which is rather interesting to wide audience can be presented to WAIS.

The first stage of search usually is the inquiry special in the database under the name “directory-of-servers“ which contains small on the volume of the description (papers) of all other WAIS bases. At the same time it is better to specify not those keywords which, eventually, interest you, and those general concepts relating to your field of knowledge.

Though Netscape is capable to work with the WAIS servers, for this purpose it has to know the address of a special proxy - the server for the WAIS protocol which your provider it can not appear. Special WAIS - the clients working including under Windows, not only convenient for interactive search in databases but also allows to do without services of any server - the intermediary.
of URL - the address for WAIS looks as:
of wais: / / /

of Gopher
Each of the considered still Internet protocols quite could exist in itself: telnet provides access to programs, FTP - to files, WAIS - to databases. All these systems were created and developed almost independently from each other and set before themselves a specific goal - to construct the mechanism of access to one certain type of resources.
However as grew at Internet and became complicated, he pushed people to thought that information on the nature is uniform and that it is not too reasonable to divide it into different “types of resources“ with unlike methods of access.

By the end 80 - x years the idea of a new universal remedy of work with diverse information was in the air.
the First system urged to realize these dreams became Gopher which was born 1991 at the American university of staff of Mennesot. The structure of the menus enclosed each other (Kirsanov, 1996) was the fundamental concept put in its basis.
Having contacted Gopher- the client one of Gopher - servers, you first of all are included in the root, main menu of this server.

Obviously, from all information Internet Gopher tools it is most of all similar to WWW - both of these systems are urged to serve as a cover with diverse resources. However Gopher is deprived of those rich graphic means which do WWW not only the information catalog, but also new mass media and even by a new genre of art. It is possible to tell that Gopher is WWW “subset“ - that very much simplifies integration of Gopher as one of types of resources in WWW. Practically everything that is told about work with Gopher - the client fairly and for travel on the Gopher system by means of WWW browser.
of URL of one of the Gopher points - the menu consists of the address Gopher-of the server and the listed those menu items which will lead you to starting point:
of gopher: / / /


of WWW

I all - the main thing in World Wide Web is not conveniences of access to FTP- of archive and Gopher - the menu.

The majority of servers of the WWW system offer information which without WWW hardly in general ever would snare. Speed of creation and updating, rich graphic opportunities in combination with ease of access and huge audience made WWW new mass media.

Fortunately, the nature of WWW as, first of all means of search and the organization of information allows to hope that this remarkable invention not to turn into the instrument of only one commerce and advertizing (Kirsanov, 1996).
Servers and clients of WWW communicate among themselves under the special URL protocol for WWW looks as:
of http: / /