Who such Iosif Trumpeldor?
He lived absolutely short life, only 40 years, but every year could become its adulthood a plot of the fascinating fighter. He lived on a joint of centuries. Historians will call this era then interesting time. But, as we know, in interesting times is to people most heavier. Iosif Trumpeldor (1880-1920) was born
in a large family of the veteran of the Caucasian wars who served quarter of the century in the Russian army. Iosif with honors graduated from school in Rostov, was admitted to medical assistant`s school, and in two years was called up for military service. Rather quiet service of a voyenfeldsher in the Kiev military district left time and for other hobbies: ideas of Tolstoyism, will power education, vegetarianism - all this was fashionable in circles of democratic youth. Once Theodor Gertsl`s book falls of it into hands “The Jewish state“, and Zionist dream of revival of own country for the disseminated and oppressed people carries away the ardent romantic young man.
In 1904 burst russko - the Japanese war, and Iosif gives a request for the transfer to field army. It is sent to serve in regimental infirmary in fortress Port - Artur, the most heavy fights exactly here were developed. Iosif achieved the transfer from infirmary to investigation, repeatedly went to the back of the enemy, proved the brave soldier.
In one of fights he got a severe wound, bones of the left hand were absolutely shattered, and doctors were forced to amputate a hand above an elbow. However in a week after operation the corporal Trumpeldor wrote the report to the company commander: he wanted to return quicker to a system, to participate together with companions in fights and expressed only one request - to give it instead of the gun a checker and the revolver.
The commandant of fortress Port - Artur the general Smirnov gave the order in which it was said that the seriously wounded Trumpeldor, having become the disabled person, did not use the absolutely legitimate right to retire and, neglecting danger, again got up in ranks of defenders of fortress. This act for the benefit of the Homeland is much more of what is required by the military oath and therefore his name will be entered by gold letters in regiment history. The same order Trumpeldor was awarded by the St George`s Cross and the unter - officers is made in senior.
Prodolzhalistyazhely fights in the besieged fortress, from July to December the garrison sustained four storms. How Iosif battled, says the fact that else three times he was awarded with the St George`s Cross “for fearless bravery“. It is interesting that he received these crosses on “a company sentence“. During military operations such rewarding sometimes practiced. The division which caused a stir in fight received several crosses, and soldiers solved which of fellow soldiers behaved heroically and more others is worthy this award. Needless to say that such awards were appreciated much above, than awarded by the administration.
In December, 1904. The port - Artur fell, despite heroic defense and the numerous victims. Together with 10 000 defenders of fortress an unter Trumpeldor appeared in Japanese to captivity. The leader at heart, the person of vigorous energy and big organizing abilities, he applied many forces, trying to facilitate life of prisoners of war. For 1700 soldiers - Jews created school and a synagogue, library, cash desk of mutual aid, issued the newspaper. It became clear that among the Russian soldiers there is majority illiterate peasants. And then Trumpeldor appealed to the camp administration about the organization of classes for training in the diploma and account, and also courses on agronomics.
How here not to remember the statement of the hero of the movie of Soviet period: “To love the homeland is not birches to kiss, and to support the most honest, most devoted people when it is difficult for them. They - the Homeland“.
Surprisingly, but Japanese met requirements of him, built the building for school, helped with textbooks. In the Japanese concentration camps the first time the resolution the Hague (1899) peace conferences about rules of the treatment of prisoners of war was put into practice. It is difficult for people to whom all horrors and atrocities of wars of the 20th century are known to imagine that prisoners in Japan except study were allowed to work for payment at buildings or in agriculture, to play sports, to sing in chorus, to participate in theatrical performances, to visit excursions.
Rumors about the strange prisoner of war who is engaged in vigorous educational activity reached the Japanese emperor Matsukhito who expressed desire to meet Trumpeldor personally. In full regimentals of the Russian soldier with four St George`s Crosses Iosif was brought to breasts to the palace, and the emperor long asked for what feats he received such high awards. Also interested the emperor why such brave soldier is not an officer. He was amazed, having heard in reply that in Russia Jews are forbidden to give the officer ranks. At the end of an audience the unexpected gift - a hand artificial limb with the gold inscription “It Favours the Japanese Emperor to the Hero Trumpeldor for His Useful Activity during Captivity“ was presented to Iosif.
In 1905 the peace between Russia and Japan was made, prisoners of war returned home. Soon Trumpeldor received the message from St. Petersburg that it, as well as other gentlemen Of St. George, invited for representation to the tsar Nicholas II. The emperor thanked him for model service and by way of exception gave the rank of the officer.
In 1911. Iosif graduated from the university, but preferred to successful legal practice and comfortable residence in Russia life and fight heavy, full of dangers in far Palestine. He accepted the last battle in the ranks of fighters of self-defense, protecting the Jewish settlement of Tel - Find fault from the Arab bandits. Fatally wounded, he pronounced words which are known now by each Israeli school student: “It is good to die for the country“.
In many cities of Israel is Iosif Trumpeldor Street, the hero of the country and the hero of Russia, the Full Cavalier of St. George.