How the personality in the period of preschool age develops? (from 3 - x years before receipt in school)?
Assimilation of ethical standards. Three stages of personal age development of children in the preschool childhood, their connection with formation of various parties of the identity of the child. A communication role in development of the identity of the child - the preschool child. Assimilation by preschool children of norms and forms of behavior. Value syuzhetno - role-playing games with rules for personal development of children. Emergence of moral self-control of behavior Transition to the automated forms of moral behavior. Manifestation of moral qualities of the personality in communication.
Emotionally - motivational regulation of behavior. Development of motivation of communication at preschool age. Inclusion in communication of the motives connected with the doctrine and work. Emergence of social motives, aspiration to self-affirmation, orientations to opinions of surrounding people, approval, a praise. Distinction by the child of difficulty of solvable tasks, development of ability is correct to estimate progress and failures Emergence of certain emotional reactions of the child to failure and success. Correlation of progress and failures with opportunities and abilities.
Understanding by the child of the fact that his success depends not only on abilities, but also on ongoing efforts. Formation of need for achievement of progress. Emergence of a taxonomy of motives and their strong-willed regulation.
Formation of the main personal qualities at the child - the preschool child. Concept of basic qualities of the identity of the child, their origin.
Communication of the beginning of development of basic personal qualities with early age. Emergence of “an internal position“ at the child - the preschool child. Emergence of consciousness in the form of an adequate assessment of own personal qualities, development on this basis of many other useful qualities of the personality. Imitation and its value for development of the identity of the preschool child. Influence of parents on formation of personal qualities at boys and girls.
Psychological new growths of preschool age. Emergence of the figurative and internal symbolical action plan. Association of internal. and external operations in informative processes of perception, attention, memory and thinking. Connection of imagination, thinking and speech, emergence of the internal speech. Completion of formation of the speech as means of communication. Use of the speech as means of thinking. Formation of internal moral self-control of acts. Development of motivation of communication with people. Detection of identity of the child.
Preschool age, taking on a scale of physical development of the child time period from three to six years, makes a big contribution to mental development of the child. For these years the child gets a lot of things from what remains with him for a long time, defining him as the personality and the subsequent intellectual development.
From the point of view of formation of the child as persons all preschool age can be divided into three parts.
The first of them treats age three - four years and is mainly connected with strengthening of emotional self-control. The second covers age from four to five years and concerns moral self-control, and the third treats age about six years and includes formation of business personal qualities of the child.
At preschool age children begin to be guided in the behavior, in the estimates given themselves and other people, certain ethical standards.
They form more or less steady moral representations, and also ability to moral self-control.
Sources of moral representations of children are adults who are engaged in their training and education, and also peers. Moral experience from adults to children is passed on and acquired in the course of communication, supervision and imitation, through system of encouragement and punishments. Communication possesses a special role in development of the identity of the preschool child.
Knowing history and content of interpersonal contacts of the child at preschool age, we can understand a lot of things in its formation as persons. Communication is connected with satisfaction the requirement of the same name which is shown early enough. Its expression is the aspiration of the child to knowledge of and other people, to an assessment and a self-assessment. Close examination of how in ontogenesis communication what character it accepts at inclusion of the child in different types of activity, joint with other people, develops, helps to understand better those opportunities which open for development of the personality with age.
In the preschool childhood, as well as in infancy and early age, one of leading roles in personal development of the child is still played by mother. Nature of her communication with the child directly affects formation at it these or those personal qualities and types of behavior. The aspiration to approval from mother becomes one of incentives of behavior for the child of preschool age. Essential value for development of the child is gained an assessment which close adults give it and his behavior.
One of the first children acquire norms and rules of so-called “household“ behavior, culturally - hygienic norms, and also the norms connected with the relation to the duties with observance of a day regimen, with the treatment of animals and things. The last of ethical standards acquire those which concern the treatment of people. They are most difficult for children`s understanding, and following in practice to children is given them with great difficulty.
Have positive value for assimilation of such rules syuzhetno - role-playing games with rules, widespread in the advanced Preschool age. In them representation, supervision and assimilation of rules, their transformation into habitual forms of behavior takes place. In the beginning children conform to the acquired norms and the rules of interpersonal behavior by imitation (younger preschool age), then begin to realize more deeply essence of rules and norms (the advanced preschool age). They not only carry out them, but watch closely that also other children who are near them conformed to the same rules and norms.
For behavior of children at preschool age there comes the period when it is beyond informative self-control and is postponed to management of social actions and acts. In other words, along with intellectual there is a personal and moral self-control. Ethical standards of behavior become habitual, gain stability, lose situational character. By the end of the preschool childhood most of children has a certain moral position to which they adhere more or less consistently.
Early enough the child has a quality which in its further personal destiny plays very essential role, generating a set of other individually useful qualities. It - aspiration to recognition and approval from outside, surrounding people. As from the general root at normal education the need for achievement of progress, commitment, self-reliance, independence and many others increase from this quality. Formation of such important qualities of the personality as responsibility and call of duty is connected with it.
At the child at preschool age also the personal qualities connected with the attitudes towards people are formed. It first of all attention to the person, to his cares, troubles, experiences, progress and failures. Sympathy and care in relation to people appear at many children - preschool children, and not only in game situations, but also in real life. the Senior preschool child in many cases is able to explain to
reasonably the acts, using for this purpose certain moral categories.
It means that it created the beginnings of moral consciousness and moral self-control of behavior. However, owing to a special otklikayemost of children of this age on judgments, opinions and acts of other people external manifestations of the corresponding personal qualities are not represented rather steady.