how there is a development of the personality aged from 1 - go years to 3 - x years?
Supervision over behavior of surrounding people and imitation it at early age become one of the main sources of personal socialization of the child. Within the first year of life by the beginning of this age at it as we saw from the previous material, the feeling of attachment is formed. The positive, emotionally painted assessment from parents of acts and personal qualities of the child generates at him self-confidence, belief I the abilities and opportunities. The child who is strongly attached to the parents is more disciplined and obedient.
The strongest personal personal attachment arises at children whose parents are benevolent and attentive to the child, always seek to satisfy his basic needs.
Attachment represents the general socially - the psychological feeling appearing in infancy at all children, and its analogs are available also for animals. There are various explanations of a phenomenon of infantile affection of children for parents.
At the beginning its studying considered that early affection of children for the parents is explained by the fact that they, first of all mother, are a source of satisfaction of the main biological and social needs of the child, for example requirements in emotionally - positive communication. However the subsequent researches showed that this point of view is not quite proved.
Affection of the child for the parents serves probably the same purposes and generally is explained by the same reasons, as at the highest animals. Thanks to attachment basic needs of the baby and children of more advanced age are satisfied, their uneasiness decreases, are provided subjectively and objectively safe conditions for existence and active studying of surrounding reality, the basis for normal relationship with people at more mature age is formed. When mother is nearby, the children attached to the parents show more expressed tendency to physical activity, to studying of a surrounding situation.
The impossibility of continuous emotional communication and lack of affection for adults in early years, especially to mother and to other close relatives, quite often in an adult state turn for the child in inability to create and support with people normal confidential emotionally - the positive relations which play an important role in psychological development of the child as persons.
Formation of the personality at early age is connected with formation of consciousness of the child. He early recognizes himself in a mirror, responds to the name, itself I begin to use actively a pronoun. In the period of time from a year to three years there is a transformation of the child from the being who already became the subject, i.e. took the first step on the way of formation as persons, to the being realizing himself as the personality. At this age there is a psychological new growth mentioned above I. At the same time corresponding word appears also in the child`s lexicon.
After emergence of primary idea of themselves as about separately existing subject and the open statement about themselves as about the personality in communication with surrounding people in mentality of the child also other new growths of personal character appear.
Children - three-year-olds begin to compare themselves to other people therefore they gradually have a certain self-assessment, the expressed aspiration to conform to requirements imposed by adults. Further at children the pride, sense of shame, level of claims is formed.
Approximately in the same time for the first time appears and in practical relationship with people the need for independence is shown. Children begin to assert the right for independent behavior actively after the initiative statement I - when any of adults tries to help them with something against their own will, for example with game or with practical activities.
Seizing walking, many one-and-a-half-year-old children specially look for, artificially create to themselves obstacles, overcome them the thought-up difficulties.
They try to climb up hills when it is quite possible to bypass them, at a ladder step when in it there is no need, pieces of furniture, go, as if consciously stepping on the way on small objects, go there where the way is closed. All this, obviously, gives to the child pleasure and demonstrates that at it such important characterologic qualities as will power, persistence, commitment begin to develop.
Upon transition of a year by second year of life many children begin to show disobedience. It is expressed that the child sometimes with surprising persistence, worthy the best application, begins to repeat those actions which adults forbade it to carry out. Such behavior is connected with so-called crisis of the first year of life. The reason of this crisis consists that the child who had a need for knowledge of world around begins to study actively it and has satisfaction from the acquired knowledge and effect which had by him.
Therefore he vividly is interested in repetition of the received result of activity once, showing at the same time persistence and natural inquisitiveness. At the same time his desire encounters misunderstanding and resistance of adults. In response to direct prohibition from the adult the child begins to show obstinacy and persistently tries to repeat what is forbidden to it. It is a form of a protest of the child against inadequate behavior of the adult concerning it. Sometimes in response to a ban the child begins to be capricious, cry, rushes on a floor, behaves defiantly disobediently.
This ontogenetichesky first vital crisis is a sign of development of the child, his readiness to move to the following level of a maturity. the opportunities and own qualities of the personality the child begins to realize
more or less approximately since one and a half years. Two-year-old children are already able to subordinate behavior of other people to the requirements, realize the opportunities in rendering influence on them, showing at the same time certain strong-willed qualities. On the second year of life the kid begins to use pronouns to me, apparently, realizing distinction among themselves and surrounding people.
By three years children have an idea of thinking as about the process happening in their head and hidden from surrounding people. On the third year of life, performing any operation the child describes it, and what does itself, but not other people is more often.
with the advent of consciousness gradually develops ability of the child to empathy - to understanding of an emotional condition of other person. After one and a half years from the birth at children it is possible to observe obvious aspiration to console the upset person, to embrace, kiss him, to give it a toy or something tasty.
Already two-year-old children are capable to understand a psychological state of other person.
During the period from one and a half to two years begin to be acquired by children standards of behavior, for example, need to be accurate, to constrain the aggression, to be obedient, etc. At compliance of own behavior to the norm set from the outside children test satisfaction, and at discrepancy - are upset. Approximately by the end of the second year of life many children obviously worry if they for some reason do not manage to fulfill any requirement or the adult`s request.
Upon transition from the second for the third year of life an opportunity for formation at the child of one of the most useful business qualities &ndash opens; needs for achievement of progress. The first and, obviously, the earliest manifestation of this requirement at children is attributing by the child of the progress and failures to any objective or subjective circumstances, for example ongoing efforts. Other sign of existence of this requirement - character of an explanation child of progress and failures of other people.
To rise by this step motivatsionno - personal development, the child has to be able to explain the progress with references to own psychological qualities and abilities. It for this purpose has to have a certain self-assessment.
One more indicator of development of motivation of achievement of progress in children represents ability of the child to distinguish tasks of different degree of difficulty and to realize a measure of development of own abilities necessary for performance of these tasks.
At last, the fourth indicator which is usually testifying already to rather high development at the child of the cognitive sphere oriented on achievement of progress represents ability to distinguish abilities and ongoing efforts. It means that the child becomes ready to the analysis of the reasons of the progress and failures capable more or less randomly to operate the activity directed to achievement of progress and avoiding of failures.
Approximately from one-and-a-half-year-old age some children during game stop the activity and look at the work, as if estimating it from outside.
By two years it is done already practically by all children. This fact can be considered as a sign that children of this age are capable to allocate and estimate result of the activity already. Almost along with it in a lexicon of the child there is a phrase which is already mentioned by us I - . This phrase not only says that the child allocates himself but also that he already considers the work as result of own activity. However up to four-year age many children are still not really persistent in the desire to make something independently and quite often concede to pressure of adults.