What types of endowments happen?
Now psychologists recognize that level, the qualitative originality and nature of development of endowments is always result of the difficult interaction of heredity (natural inclinations) and the social environment mediated by activity of the child (game, educational, labor). At the same time it is impossible to ignore also a role of the psychological mechanisms of self-development of the personality which are the cornerstone of formation and realization of individual talent.
It is necessary to judge endowments of the child not only on his school progress, but also on out-of-school affairs, and also in the activity forms initiated by him.
Exists a certain dependence between age at which endowments, and sphere of activity are found. Most early talents are shown in art, especially in music, a little later - in the sphere of the fine arts. In science achievement of significant results in the form of outstanding opening, creations of new areas and methods of research, etc. happens usually later, than in art.
It is connected, in particular, with need of acquisition of profound and extensive knowledge without which discoveries are impossible. Before others mathematical talents are, as a rule, shown. This regularity is confirmed by the facts of biographies of great people (Leibniz, Galois, Gauss).
of Distinction in endowments can be connected both with a measure of manifestation of their signs, and with an assessment of level of achievements of the child.
Division of endowments according to this basis, despite its convention, happens by comparison of various indicators with average age norm.
So, abilities of some children exceed the average level of abilities of their peers, however in an insignificant measure. Their endowments are not always evident. However they have, nevertheless, its main distinctive signs also have to be estimated by teachers and school psychologists respectively.
Others show very bright intellectual, art, communicative or some other tendencies. Their endowments are, as a rule, obvious to people around. At last, there are children who so surpass average age norm in the abilities that it allows to speak about their exclusive, special endowments. Success of the activity which is carried out by them can be unusually high. At the same time they often make “risk group“ as have serious problems which require special attention and appropriate assistance from teachers and psychologists.
It is very important to consider degree of expressiveness of endowments as there are certain regularities in its manifestations and dynamics depending on its level. Any individual case of children`s endowments can be estimated from the point of view of all above-mentioned criteria of classification of its types. Endowments appear, thus, the phenomenon multidimensional in character.
The classification of types of endowments developed by domestic psychologists is of interest:
1. The general endowments (concerning all parties of mental life of the child).
2. The special endowments (which are shown in any special activity).
3. Actual endowments (indicators of the success which is already available).
4. The potential or hidden endowments (indicators of a possibility of realization of certain abilities at observance of certain conditions).
Special endowments in turn have several characteristic types:
• Academically gifted and intelligently gifted;
• Socially gifted;
• Is sports also physically gifted;
• Creatively and artly gifted.
Academically gifted - are successfully trained at school: perfectly cope with a training material, have deep and resistant internal motivation to cognitive activity.
Intelligently gifted - always have high rates of the special tests revealing I.Q. These are children with congenital high intellectual opportunities to which the standard of an educational task are most often not interesting.
Socially - leader gifted - easily adapt to new situations, tend to direct games or occupations of other children. Creatively exceptional children - original ideas or to find
original result, it is highly creative.
Is sports also physically exceptional children - have the high level of physical training, differ in good health and endurance.
In educational activity three categories of exceptional children often are considered:
• Children with unusually high general level of intellectual development with other things being equal (such children most often meet at preschool and younger school age).
• Children with signs of special intellectual endowments in a certain field of science (a teenage image).
• Studying, not achieving for any reasons success in the doctrine, but possessing bright informative activity, originality of a mental warehouse, uncommon intellectual reserves (meet at the advanced school age more often).
Knowledge of types of classification of endowments gives opportunities to social teachers in the work to consider categories of endowments, to carry out an individual approach to children, to pay them special attention taking into account specific features of endowments of everyone.