what features of thinking happen?
Specific features of thinking and intellectual potential of the personality.
Idea of identity of the person almost surely assumes an assessment of his mind. The psychological knowledge of the person concludes data on thinking as mental process, about formation and development of intelligence.
Exists a huge number of works in psychology to define mechanisms of intellectual activity of the person, to present its structure.
By tradition in intelligence distinguish verbal (verbal), numerical, spatial measurement to which some authors add imagination, memory, logic.
the Famous researcher of the identity of the person J. Gilford suggested to consider mind manifestation as implementation of intellectual operations (the analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, communication, systematization, classification).
These intellectual operations are carried out with use of images, symbols, concepts, speeches, actions. At last, conclusions about belonging of the phenomena or objects to classes, about prichinno - investigative communications of creation of theories are result of intellectual operations, a consequence of processing of contents.
Thinking assumes ability of mind to spread out the studied phenomenon to parts and to take from them what can lead to the correct conclusion. About abilities of the person most often judge by productivity of his efforts.
But progress of the person both in subject, and in cerebration depends not only on abilities. Not a smaller role is played by a habit to think. Rene Descartes spoke: “… to improve mind, it is longer necessary to reflect, than to learn“. Ability and skills develop in the course of training and education: “To learn - to sharpen mind“.
Therefore it is frequent in life people, initially more gifted, achieve smaller results, in less gifted, but well trained at which, besides, also necessary qualities of character are created, are more successful.
All process of considering of a specific objective or situation or phenomenon can be presented in the form of three consecutive stages.
In the beginning there is a specific state which it is possible to call interest, either incentive motive, or tension, - a state the events from - for a mismatch of already available knowledge, ways of action, schemes of the decision and necessary results. Then there is an orientation - by means of sequence of statement of a question and search of answers of people on them carries out operations of the translation of information from language of images on language of symbols, concepts and vice versa, carries out search of missing communications in a task.
The third stage - the choice of the decision: the person touches and weighs possible decisions, compares hypotheses to the required answer. If coincidence is satisfactory, process comes to an end if is not present, then other alternative is investigated.
of Distinction in cogitative activity of people are shown in various qualities of thinking. The most essential of them independence, width, depth, flexibility, speed, criticality and non-standard.
These qualities of thinking or quality of mind become individual properties of the identity of the person.
Independence of thinking is characterized by ability of the person to put forward new tasks and to find the necessary solutions and answers, without resorting to the frequent help of other people. It does not mean that independently conceiving person does not rely on knowledge, thoughts and experience of other people. People of independent mind consciously acquire and creatively apply experience and knowledge of other people.
Width of mind is expressed in the cognitive activity of the person covering various spheres of activity in a broad outlook, versatile observation and inquisitiveness. Broad cognitive activity as quality of thinking is based on comprehensive and profound knowledge. It is ability of the person in the course of knowledge to pass from reflection of reality in images to reflection of communications in concepts, conclusions, logical sequences.
In process of development of thinking ability to classify objects and the phenomena, to select characteristics of objects, significant in different classes of tasks increases. The culture of thinking assumes the developed ability to think about same in different “languages“: figuratively and in language of concepts, by means of associations and general words etc. In practice of reflection as the phenomenon of an elevated mind ability to look at the same thing, object, a task from the different parties, to see a polysemy of objects and the phenomena is shown.
Flexibility of mind is expressed in freedom of thought from the holding-down influence of forbidden receptions in last experience and ways of the solution of tasks, in ability to quickly change the actions at change of a situation. Quality of mind, the shown abilities to turn freely from concrete thinking to abstract into compliance with solvable cogitative tasks - - is called flexibility of mind.
Depth of mind is expressed in ability to get into essence of the most difficult questions, ability to see a problem where at other people of a question does not arise. The requirement to understand the reasons of emergence of the phenomena and events, ability to expect their further development is peculiar to deep mind. Development, for example, the school problem, in particular, on mathematics quite provides such level of intellectual development which consists in knowledge of rather large number of concepts, formulas, theorems;
in ability to distinguish various classes of tasks; in skill to use all data submitted in statements of the problem for selection of the most suitable way of the solution of a task. If to stop at this level of intellectual development, then the developed stereotype of an identification of a class of tasks of the offered terms and the choice of the suitable principle of the decision limits an opportunity manifestation of such characteristic of mind which is called creative thinking.
Ability to refuse a stereotype, to resist the prompted way of the solution of a task or a problem, not to follow the imposed style of activity is a qualitative difference of higher level of intellectual development, it is a mind non-standard.
With ability is non-standard to argue still such quality as original principle of the solution of a task is closely connected.
This concept is entered by R. M. Granovskaya who devoted many years to studying of thinking, intelligence and creative opportunities. “The principle of the solution of a task reflects depth of its understanding. If the allocated principle can be used only in very similar tasks, then speak about the small depth of understanding. When it is applicable for the solution of tasks from very far areas of knowledge, the deep water of understanding is supposed. This quality is called mind depth.
Speed of mind is an ability of the person to understand quickly a difficult situation, to quickly consider and apply the correct decision. Resourceful and bright people are people with fast mind. Speed of thinking depends on knowledge, on extent of development of cogitative skills, and also individual rate of cogitative activity what usually big mobility of nervous processes in a cerebral cortex is the cornerstone of.
It is necessary to distinguish haste of mind from speed of mind. The person with such amount of mind is characterized by lack of a habit to long and persistent work. Haste of mind is also a mind surface when the person snatches out some one party of a question and is incapable to consider it in all complexity.
The developed mind uses images, concepts, judgments, conclusions to build logical chains from simple before difficult conceptual and theoretical constructions. At the same time it is noticeable that one can flexibly use the mastered operations and
quickly to switch, establishing connection between thoughts, another makes most too, but much more slowly.
Qualitative distinction in the speed with which the person can adapt own thought process for specific objectives is called ingenuity.
Is natural that there are people ingenious. The guess is practically too most, as ingenuity, is only carried out it even quicker to guess, it is not necessary to argue long.
The thought in a guess, probably, passes all stages of a reasoning, but in the curtailed look. On the course of reflection of people operates with already developed generalizations excluding need of the analysis for many links. Efficiency of thinking in this case depends on an avtomatizirovannost of processes of folding, training of mind on a guess.
Criticality of mind is an ability of the person to objectively estimate personal and others` thoughts, carefully and to comprehensively check all put-forward provisions and conclusions. The person with critical mentality never regards the statements as absolutely true, infallible and exhaustive. And if it turns out that its judgments are not true, then it, without fluctuating, will reject them and will look for new solutions.
Qualitative superiority of human reason represents ability to be beyond obvious, out of limits of concrete parameters of reality. The intelligence and intellectual potential form unity, but not identity. The intellectual potential is first of all communication of opportunities and tendencies, resources and subject`s reserves with driving forces of intelligence, with motivatsionno - the potrebnostny sphere and the general abilities of the person and power ensuring creative efficiency of the person in
process of activity.
Intellectual potential is the system property having multiple and raznourovnevy definitions. It is possible to understand intellectual potential of the person on the basis of interrelations: intelligence - activity processes; intelligence - the personality.
Is formed and collects it in process of the person as individual, the personality, the subject of activity and identity.
The intellectual potential is a peculiar advancing reflection of reality, qualitatively new elements and stocks of functions necessary for transition of system of intelligence to the new level of functioning.
Intelligence - in translation from Latin intellectus - understanding, knowledge; intellectum - reason. Therefore according to the psychological contents “intelligence“ belongs to indistinctly certain concepts.
The point of view according to which intelligence is what can be measured by intellectual tests is widespread. The concept “intelligence“ reduce that to a certain general biological function and the general factor, to speech thinking, value and personal sense and to extremely widely treated “knowledge“ as the integral, essential property of consciousness and the general ability to understanding of how the subject is perceived and estimated by other individuals and groups.
In the latter case the intelligence is identified with category of consciousness.
In the history of researches of intelligence of the person can allocate two main approaches which are mutually enriching each other. The first is connected with a name Zh. Piaget. In its researches it was shown what huge natural potential of development the intelligence has (the mechanism of an equilibration of the subject with world around).
The source of development of intelligence - in him, and a source of development is actual life of the subject which puts problems, creates difficulties and contradictions which the subject needs to overcome.
Other approach is reflected in A. Ballon, L. S. Vygotsky, J. Bruner`s works and others. For these researches the question of oposredovaniye communication of intellectual development of the person was key. Intellectual development was considered as effect of the general socialization of the person.
J. Bruner wrote: “it is impossible to reach a development explanation, without attracting for this purpose feature of culture, the language nature, internal logic of children`s thinking and character of evolutionary history of mankind“.
Absolutely original approach to understanding of intelligence was offered by B. G. Ananyev who allocated to intelligence the special place in the general set of potentials of human development.
He considered intelligence as the multilevel organization of informative forces covering psychophysiological processes of a state and property of the personality. They are peculiar equivalents of intelligence and define a measure of intellectual working capacity and the price of intellectual tension, degree of their usefulness and harm for health of the person.
For an assessment of a cash condition of system of intelligence, efficiency of intellectual activity during this period of human life the concept of the intellectual status is used.
Concept of intellectual potential to some extent blocks concept of the status, but designates real intellectual opportunities of the person, his readiness to work, and also unrealizable intellectual properties, intellectual reserves.
Besides, the concept of intellectual potential reflects different classes of mental properties and mechanisms which define progressive changes of intelligence, driving forces of intellectual development.