What is genius?
Genius - the practical embodiment of the increased level of creative potential of the personality concerning other persons. It is traditionally expressed in the new and unique creations, with delay recognized as “masterpieces“. Sometimes the genius is explained with new and unexpected methodological approach to creative process.
As a rule, the genius creates much more productively and quicker than the age-mates reaching official recognition in the same sphere of occupations. There is an opinion that the genius demands universal interests of the uncommon personality.
Psychologists agree in opinion that abilities, like muscles, need to be developed by exercises. It follows from the determination of abilities, they cannot be born in itself, out of a certain activity.
It is easy to track truthfulness of this thesis on the example of musical abilities. Those who practised music, know: the way to mastery lies through daily hours-long occupations which considerable part is made by tiresome scales. And these scales are daily played by both the beginning musicians, and great pianists. However, matter not so much in
number of exercises, how many in tension force, in systemacity of mental work, its technique.
But all this belongs to training of already existing abilities. Formation of new abilities takes place in several stages:
1) Identification of inclinations. It is very important stage at which it is necessary to reveal prerequisites to these or those abilities for their further formation. It can be made by means of supervision, however the most widespread approach to this process is carrying out various tests.
The similar technique is widely used by children`s psychologists for identification of inclinations at the child, but also can be applied to the adult that practices employers on interview with the candidate.
2) Providing the favorable environment for development of abilities. The senzitivny period of development of the person, that is such period when conditions for development of these or those abilities are most optimum can be considered as a favorable condition. Often this period is called the period of a special susceptibility.
The Senzitivny periods are characteristic of children, but time of their emergence and duration depend on specific features of each specific child. The adult`s task at this stage to expect or in time to notice such period and to provide to the child what is necessary for it for development of this or that ability. Training in playing a violin can be an example.
Most of teachers do not begin to teach children is more senior than nine years, so usually after this age the senzitivny period for this musical ability comes to an end.
3) Introduction to activity. This stage is practical realization previous and has in many respects something in common with it.
As soon as favorable conditions for development of this or that ability are revealed, it is necessary to ship the person in the activity connected directly with this ability. Since as it was already told above, ability can arise and develop only in activity. A variety of kinds of activity in which the person is engaged promotes the most versatile and at the same time complex development of its abilities.
It is also important to consider some requirements which observance will allow to develop this or that ability most effectively.
• Creative nature of activity. Such activity demands from the person of ingenuity and some originality. Besides, this approach will allow to achieve full immersion on Wednesday, a total capture of attention.
Most actually it for children, the most effective techniques of training and development of abilities are based on creative, often game activity today.
• Optimum level of difficulty. It is necessary to consider features of each individual, his mental capacities, physical qualities and some individual properties, such as memory, attention etc. If activity is too simple, then provides only realization of already available abilities;
if it is excessively difficult, then becomes impracticable and, therefore, also does not lead to formation of new skills.
• Providing a positive emotional spirit promotes formation of interest in activity and increase in its efficiency. The positive spirit can be achieved by means of system of success and failures.
In its framework each failure has to be surely supported with a victory, thus some variety is brought process of activity, there is a passion which is not allowed to the individual to throw this or that kind of activity.
• Due motivation. The stimulating motivation also maintains interest of the individual in this activity.
It turns the activity purpose into actual need of the person. Formation and development of abilities of the person requires learning, and according to the theory of social learning, this process cannot happen without the corresponding reinforcement. The reinforcement, the quicker is stronger and there will be more effectively a development of this or that ability. As a reinforcement such incentives as encouragement and punishment can be used.
Encouragement is considered more effective method since. punishments quite often lead to suppression of undesirable behavior, instead of its elimination.
Thus, development in the person of abilities to different types of activity in many respects depends on external environment. There is an opinion that development of creative abilities of the person has some special, internal sources. Supporters of this idea support the point of view with predisposition one and full inability of other people to certain kinds of activity.
However they forget and distort the main thing - a source of development of abilities. Spontaneously developed initial abilities take for congenital.
So, initial abilities of people develop very quickly, but reach only the lowest level. To continue development of some abilities or to create new, development it is necessary to organize, direct it.