How there was a feuilleton genre?
Why began to read the Soviet newspapers with the last page? Because on other pages there was nothing to read. On the first printed any drag how in a brotherly situation Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev has a talk with Yasser Makhmudovich Arafat, on the second - to conduct with fields or from faces, and on the third - again a drag about the international life and the American imperialism with a caricature Kukryniksov or Boris Yefimov.
I only on the fourth, the last, the page it was possible to read something interesting: CSKA - “Dynamo“ (Tbilisi) 2:1, the program of telecasts, “The phenologist`s notes“... And sometimes - the feuilleton.
Though the Soviet writers the writing, happened, grandiloquently called “a terrible sword of Party“, the Soviet feuilletonists should compare the creations to the cruel axe. At best, with a mean stiletto of the murderer. The victim - that to answer, could not come true. Even in court.
The feuilleton in “Crocodile“, “News“ or, God forbid, in “Truth“ always meant the end of someone`s destiny, and sometimes and the beginning of a season of landings. Therefore as feuilletonists of the central newspapers and magazines, nevertheless them swaggered, if one may say so, the glory strongly povanivat. And a question still whether such glory is necessary? The name of Vasily Ardamatsky, author about two tens books about the Soviet intelligence agents, would be safely forgotten now, do not write he the anti-Semitic feuilleton in “Crocodile“ in 1953.
However, the newspaper feuilleton on the fact of the birth was a genre malicious and low. The word “feuilleton“ appeared in French in 1800, and the famous French journalist, the owner of the newspaper “Journal des D é entered it; bats“ Louis`s - Francois Berten (1766-1841) . Newspaper “Journal des D é bats“ arose in revolutionary 1794 as the printing report on the debate which was taking place in National assembly. From here and name. By the way, such is an origin of the name of the Izvestiya newspaper which appeared in February, 1917. Originally it was called “News of Petrograd council of working deputies“, and after - “News of Councils of deputies of workers of the USSR“.
But already at the beginning of 19 - go centuries “Journal des D é bats“ became the commercial enterprise and, naturally, began to fight for the reader. Debate and deputies already very few people interested. The public was attracted by the interesting facts and gossips. In 1803 Berten changed a format of a newspaper leaf and began to fill its lower detachable part (“cellar“) with “ball“. From the French word “feuilleton“, that is “a scrap, a fragment“, there was also their name. All material which went to appendices began to be called “feuilleton“ too.
It turned out very conveniently. From above - a serious subject. Was tired of “highbrow“ reading? Have a rest! Look in the lower part of the page “at the announcement of the unknown lady, under the name: “Here is how I increased the bust by six inches“ - and other interesting features“ . Approximately so I. Ilf and E. Petrov Vasisualy Lokhankin`s hero joined intelligent reading.
However, it appeared, as for “cellar“ it is necessary to be able to write. And Berten`s merit was that he began to involve serious writers to writing of this nonsense. So there was a feuilleton genre. Feuilletonists began to write sharp critical notes of a small format about the current life. Wrote not only about policy, but also about culture, theater, morals and the right. It is natural that also “to hook“ on the reader, and for “slanderous fabrications“ not to be put on trial, a certain language was developed: brisk, cocky and, at the same time, veiled. Such fig in a pocket. Popularity of the newspaper “Journal des D é bats“ in many respects was defined by what for it was written by both Victor Hugo, and Alexandre Dumas - the father and who is nowadays fairly forgotten, but then very famous Eugene Sue.
The genre of the feuilleton grew and got stronger, and in 1830 - x years his collateral sonny was born: the novel - the feuilleton. In “cellar“ of the serious newspaper began to print the fascinating novel with continuation. In each number - chapter. Thereby the reader (and the writer too) was tied to the newspaper for a long time.
And again it turned out that novels for entertainment of public need to be able to be written too. And the plot has to be interesting, and action needs to be developed promptly, and the format should have been observed: one number - one head. At the same time had to finish each chapter small, but a riddle that the interested reader bought also the following issue of the newspaper, with continuation. And of course, it was necessary to write quickly. Any “crises of a genre“!
Novels - feuilletons even great O. de Balzac plaid about. But the most famous writer of this genre, of course, Alexandre Dumas is the father. “Three musketeers“ and “the Count Monte - Cristo“ were printed as novels - feuilletons. Already remembered Eugene Sue two best-known novels, “The Parisian secrets“ and “Wandering Jew“, wrote as novels - feuilletons. In the same form Henri Murge published the novel “Scenes from Bohemia Life“. On the basis of this novel the libretto of the opera of J. Puccini “Bohemia“ was written later.
The novel - the feuilleton escaped also after World War I. In 1922 on pages of the Prague newspaper “Lidov of a novina“ as the novel - the feuilleton the fantastic anti-Utopia of K. Capek “Factory of the absolute“ was published. But now this genre died out in the absence of the newspapers wishing to print novels and also in the absence of the readers wishing them to read diligently.
Died out, without having left posterity? Perhaps what is not present. In due time the novel - the feuilleton was born as if as a result of a skreshcheniye of not purebred puppy, the newspaper feuilleton with mighty suky, the novel. The result, contrary to expectations, turned out absolutely quite good. And once this cheerful kobelek, running by television station, it was rubbed about a television camera. As a result we received that we received: inexhaustible pride of series.
It is possible to argue long on quality of these puppies, but one is undoubted. Article and manners they are similar both to daddy, and to the grandmother with the grandfather.