The gun - a machine gun of “Madsen“. Why this manual machine gun called “the Danish gun“ in Russia?
And why and not to call quite so if it was bought in Denmark? Or, for example, “the gun - a machine gun“. The matter is that machine guns at this time (the beginning 20 - go centuries) already were. And here the term “manual machine gun“ designating the automatic weapon postponed and used in fight by one person was not yet.
Patented the scheme of automatic equipment applied in “the gun - Madsen`s machine gun“, a certain Julius Rasmussen, created the weapon “in metal“ the armorer Ens Torrance of Shoube. At first the similar weapon was called “an autoloading rifle of system of Skoubo“ by last name first by the tested weapon of similar system, the lieutenant Skoubo (Jens Theodor Schouboe) in 1896. Speak, the Danish captain Madsen who got up the general and the Minister of War subsequently, only improved the ready weapon.
Released since 1902 by the Danish firm “Dansk Rekylrifle Syndikat“ (usually it in documents call just “Syndicate“) the weapon of system of Madsen favourably differed from machine guns of that time (Maxim, Browning - the Colt) first of all in small weight and, strangely enough, the fact that firing was made by pressing a trigger as in the ordinary gun or a rifle, but without reducing - parting handles, as on other machine guns of that time.
The weapon consisted of 98 details. Automatic equipment worked at the principle of the short course of a trunk at return. The system allowed to conduct both automatic, and single fire. On a trunk there were easy developing bipods. Cooling of a trunk air. That the trunk was quicker cooled, it was covered with a thin layer of silver, did fins and concluded in a casing which protected the shooter`s hands from a burn the warmed trunk. The removable shop on 33 or 20 cartridges was established from above, sideways from the line of an aiming. The wooden butt had below an emphasis for the rack increasing convenience of firing.
Work of system where the boss moved in a trunk, on such abrupt trajectory that “it was surprising how it (gun) in general works“, was low, but convenience and compactness of the weapon exceeded reliability reasons.
The first the cavalry began to use this system: the machine gun, ready to fight, can be carried freely on a horse and to engage straight off, without wasting time for unpacking, assembly and loading. Denmark, Norway and Sweden became the first states which bought Madsen`s system for the cavalry.
And this interesting weapon of steel is farther (small parties, for tests) to buy also other countries of Europe. Russia attended to a problem of arms of parts to the easy automatic weapon in time russko - the Japanese war, then (in 1904) the first party of machine guns under a cartridge to the Russian trilinear rifle was ordered. But these machine guns came to Russia in 1905, after war.
At first, by experience of the Scandinavian countries, they were given to a cavalry, having organized Konno - machine-gun teams. A quantity “Madsenov“ was sent to the Cossack parts and fortresses for protection of villages and especially important objects “from crowd“. I will remind, in those days there was also a revolution of 1905. These machine guns completed “anti-strike“ teams on the railroads: revolution by revolution, and trains have to run to timetable. Interesting historic fact: the leader of the Moscow nobility prince Trubetskoy appealed to military department “about holiday to it one machine gun of Madsen with cartridges for protection of a manor in the Kherson province“.
In a cavalry of the gun of Madsen held on not for long, till 1912. Difficult design, capriciousness of the mechanism and impossibility of repair in field conditions, forced “administration“ to replace “Madsen“ with a machine gun of “Maxims“ on special easy tripods, and to put the withdrawn machine-gun guns in fortress. “Huy stand, is do not prost …“ Though stand idle, but it seems as at business. The fear is inspired in “enemies“. Here it seems career of “the Danish gun“ in Russia also ended.
On the contrary! Due to the rapid development of aircraft also air fights were started. Planes were then double. And so, to line the enemy plane, at first the pilot of the attacking airplane tried to rise up, to fly precisely over the purpose, and the second number threw … dumbbells, pig-iron Chushka Spit or thick iron rods down, trying to destroy the airplane flying below. Then guessed that it is possible just to shoot at enemy pilots from the gun. And then remembered about manual machine guns. So “the second life“ of machine-gun guns of Madsen began. Machine guns withdrew from fortresses and put on the Russian airplanes. On simple double put one machine gun, and on the heavy bombers “Ilya Muromets“ - whole three!
Just because Madsen`s machine gun was the ideal weapon for aircraft of that time, in 1915 in Kovrov the plant for production of “the Danish guns“ was put. Revolution prevented to start production of “the machine-gun gun“, but the Kovrov Machinebuilding Plant which is letting out different systems of the weapon works still.
Besides, development of aviation machine guns demanded also new ammunition, just a hole from a rifle bullet for the plane … that to an elephant a pellet. Well, if the engine or the pilot is not damaged. Therefore for air fights the special incendiary cartridge tested first of all on Madsen`s machine guns which equipped airplanes was invented. The incendiary bullet of those years had a special cap which set fire to gas mixture at blow about a wooden or metal covering in a head. Such cartridge for fight against the airships filled with hydrogen was especially effective. One such bullet which got in the tank blew up combustible gas.
And the Russian career of “the Danish machine-gun guns“ in the Great Patriotic War ended. There are data that the Soviet guerrillas applied Madsen`s machine guns from arsenals of the Baltic countries which got to Red army at accession in 1940 to the USSR of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. In Denmark the similar weapon was issued up to the middle 60 - x years. Quite good for the weapon about which it is told: “It was surprising how it in general works“.