Rus Articles Journal

What is a filippika?

Oh, these to me myths of Ancient Greece! Having had heard plenty of beautiful stories about gods and heroes, we begin to take inventions for gospel. We begin to believe seriously that in those nice times when only - there was only the European culture, people were better and they lived better, and in general that - the Golden Age was davny long ago.

Ah, no! All this ideas of the European professors 19 - go centuries which studied in classical gymnasiums. Ancient Greek language was esteemed by the most important of sciences there, and here sometimes neither hands, nor the heads reached physics or biology. At such distortion the will - bondage turned out that “Illiada“ - the highest achievement of literature, and the most important hero of all times and the people - Alexander of Macedon.

Though, frankly speaking, not to become to Alexander that if not his father, the tsar of Macedonia, Philip II (382-336 BC) , too the soldier and the intriguer not from the last.

Macedonia borrowed North - east suburb of the peninsula occupied by Greeks. In the east it bordered on certainly barbarous Thrace, and there was in general dreadfully aggressive Persia further. Because of the boundary situation Macedonians even spoke on a specific dialect of Greek in which they continually squoze some barbarous words. Therefore it is not surprising that other Greeks considered Macedonia as the state, so to say, conditionally Hellenic and conditionally civilized. And any there snobs - Athenians continually played a trick on “these chocks“.

Business was not limited to sneers. In the middle of 4 century BC Macedonia from the East was tyrannized the attacks by barbarians - Thracians. From the South and from the West from it neighbors - Greeks tore off the territory: who how many will be able. It do not appear at that time on the Macedonian throne Philip II, today about this country only historians would remember. But it appeared on the right place and in due time.

Philipp came from a noble family of the Macedonian tsars. Under the law the throne had to get to his brother. But in 359 g BC the brother was killed in battle. At first Philipp was a trustee at the juvenile nephew. But having shown considerable courage in fights and wit at conclusion of peace, it soon gained trust of army and when he was 23 years old about any other tsar in Macedonia the speech did not go. Especially as, having strengthened the power, Philipp first of all won the territories occupied early by Athens. By the way, on these lands there were gold mines.

Philipp had a favourite saying: “There are no such fortresses which would not be taken by a donkey, loaded gold“. So gold mines right there earned on a victory. The Macedonian army turned into army. In army permanent, professional, and therefore indestructible. Philip II thought up and created the well-known phalanx, the construction doing army by an uncreasable wall in defense and everything the sweeping-away shaft in approach.

By 353 BC Philipp approved the power in Macedonia and began to interpose in the all-Greek matter more and more persistently. Now Macedonia began to threaten Athens.

Among heads of Athens the famous speaker Demosfen (384-322 BC) became famous at this time which belonged to a noble Athenian family. And the oratorical glory of Demosfen was first of all a fruit of his will and its work.

From the birth it was weak by voice and is tongue-tied. Besides it had a tic. Demosfen continually involuntarily pulled a shoulder. Generally, it did not suit for speakers at all. However Demosfen nevertheless achieved the unattainable, at first sight, objective. Volya and work of the person create marvelous miracles.

It is necessary to tell that ancient Greeks probably first-ever understood importance of eloquence and began to train in oratory, to be improved in it, and even to arrange demonstration competitions of speakers in the manner with them the thought-up Olympic Games. Therefore young Demosfen`s life turned into continuous training. The young man improved the oratorical skills as now some children develop force of muscles, practising in rocking chairs.

Demosfen was trained in accurate diction, delivering speeches with the mouth filled by stones. That the voice became loud, he got used to perorate on the seashore. The advantage of it was double. In - the first, the voice got stronger in attempts to outvoice noise of waves which modelled thus noise of crowd in people`s assembly. And in - the second, the speech got a vseubezhdayushchy and all-destroying rhythm of the sea waves running on the coast. Training breath that it was not interrupted in the middle of the long florid phrase, Demosfen ran up abrupt hills, on the run reading the next sample of rhetoric or poetic lines. And how to clean involuntary twitching by a shoulder? Yes to suspend over it a sword! You will be forgotten, you will lose control over a body - take a painful injection! Against such difficulties you should not even say that Demosfen learned by heart speeches of the famous speakers.

Eventually, he became the same famous speaker, the all-around champion of Greece on rhetoric, pride and the favourite of Athenians. Not only listened to speakers in Athens, but to their speeches and listened. Demosfen became the master of thoughts.

It furiously protected the Athenian freedom. Demosfen convicted aggression of the Macedonian kingdom against other cities. He urged fellow citizens to offer for the sake of freedom welfare, to raise money and to create strong fleet and strong army. Only this way it is possible to stop enemies - Macedonians! The pathos speeches against the tsar - the conqueror Filippa Demosfen called of a filippikama . After it so began to call any accusatory and angry speeches.

Demosfenova filippik took effect. Athens and other Greek cities against Philipp managed to lift angry speeches. That had to recede temporarily.

But in 338 there was a decisive battle. Troops of the anti-Macedonian coalition were broken. The tsar Philip, having become the winner, behaved very softly. He understood: excessive cruelty will only lift Athenians on the next fight against it. Therefore on a gain of public opinion of Athens let the notorious donkey loaded with gold. In a camp of the won Philipp`s supporters there was more and more. Ardent speeches of Demosfen excited less and less people.

In 336 BC the tsar Philip was killed by his bodyguard. The son Filippa, Alexander (by the way, Alexander, the third on number, in the Macedonian dynasty), intercepted reins of government a strong hand. It suppressed the revolts which broke out at once after death of the father. Athens still revolted and therefore Alexander demanded to give it Demosfen. The donkey, loaded gold, approached the Athenian city gate and the business again, eventually, made. Athenians condemned Demosfen. It had to pay a huge penalty. Escaping, Demosfen left Athens and returned there only in 323 BC when Alexander of Macedon died. Oratorical abilities of Demosfen still shone. His speeches began to incite Athenians to revolt again.

However time already was another. Alexander of Macedon`s successor and one of his commanders Antipatr besieged Athens and demanded delivery of the phrasemonger. Demosfen ran, took refuge from the Macedonian soldiers in Poseidon`s temple and committed suicide there, having accepted poison.