Why “Red Gate“? From the 17th century up to now
Red Gate... What do you represent when you hear these two words? Most likely, one of stations of the Moscow subway having an exit to the Garden ring and a form reminding arch gate. Only units will remember marvelous beauty an arch with the name of the same name which stood once near an exit from this station, in the middle of a modern Garden ring. by
It is surprising, but so the destiny disposed that the metro station informed us of the primordial name that this place carried before the beginning of the 20th century, and currently only old photos kept for us an original form of Krasnykh Vorot Square and a triumphal arch. Let`s try to aggregate particles of the remained information.
Krasnye Vorota Square is located on the Garden ring, between Garden - Spassky and Garden - Chernogryazskoy streets, in Basmanny and Krasnoselsky districts of Central federal district of Moscow. In the 17th century on this place there was neither area, nor a triumphal arch, there was only an earth shaft, and the district was populated very poorly. For entry into the city in a shaft gate were made. They were called Myasnitskimi, or Frolovskimi on the street leaving to them. Near gate the church of Three Prelates was located. It is known since 1635. Trekhsvyatitelsky Deadlock was called by her name. 1686 it was still wooden, but in 1700 - x is already built from a stone.
Initially Red Gate which were called the Triumphal arch were the first triumphal arch in Russia. They were constructed of a tree by order of Peter I in honor of a victory in 1709 over Swedes in the Poltava fight of Northern war in 1709. Subsequently his wife Catherine I replaced them new in honor of own crowning in 1724. This arch burned down at a heavy fire of 1737 and was restored in 1742 on the occasion of Elizabeth Petrovna`s crowning for a solemn train which had to pass from the Kremlin to the Lefortovsky palace through this construction. In 1748 there was one more fire, and these gate burned down again.
In 1753 D. V. Ukhtomsky constructed a stone arch which in accuracy repeated wooden, constructed by Catherine I`s architects. Construction of Red Gate lasted four years. It was the typical sample of Baroque style with a rich stucco molding, lists and bronze figures which symbolized Courage, Fidelity, Abundance, Wakefulness, Economy, Constancy and Favour. Gate were decorated with fifty bright drawings representing “Majesty of the Russian Empire“, the coats of arms of the Russian provinces etc. The design was topped with a gold statue of the blowing angel who is on an exposition of the State Historical Museum before Peter I`s hall now.
To the middle of the 18th century of a collar and were called Triumphal. Later behind them the name of Red Gate because through them there was a movement from the downtown to the Red village strongly was established. Also there is an opinion that “Red“ gate inhabitants for their beauty nicknamed. As for color of the arch, originally gate were painted in white color. In red color they were painted only in the 19th century.
After 1812 the earth shaft was razed, and the square in front of Red Gate from the city in 1820 - x years was built up. 3 on October (15), 1814 in the house the general - the major F. N. Toll opposite to Red Gate was born M. Yu. Lermontov. Christened the newborn in church of Three Prelates.
Red Gate were often decorated with portraits of governors of Russia. Initially over flight of an arch Elizabeth Petrovna`s portrait surrounded with a brilliant aura settled down. In 1825 it was replaced by a two-headed eagle for Nicholas I`s crowning. In Soviet period on them hung up posters with Lenin.
Attempts of demolition of an arch of Red Gate were made by the Moscow authorities in the middle of the 19th century. So, in 1854 it was rescued from demolition only thanks to A. I. Delwig`s petition. Later, with emergence in Moscow of the tram, one line lay through an arch of Red Gate that caused protests among judges of old times of that time.
By the beginning of the 20th century of a collar strongly decayed, the stucco molding got off, rich lists were erased. In the spring of 1926 the arch was “restored“, having cleaned a majestic element in the form of a two-headed eagle and a stucco molding “medallions“, also statues disappeared that were on it once. Red Gate whitewashed. However in such look they staid not for long. In December the Presidium of the Moscow Council from - for need “made the decision to bear them to settle traffic“. Started destruction of a monument on June 3, 1927. Many rare elements and bas-reliefs from a white stone decorating gate were broken, broken and split.
A magnificent triumphal arch was destroyed as preventing journey of city transport! The same fate comprehended in 1927 and Church of Three Prelates at Red Gate.
But history of Red Gate on it did not end. Them it was held in remembrance in a land lobby of the subway which now many consider as the Red Gate which gave the name to the area. The station was open on May 15, 1935. The author of a land lobby is the architect N. A. Ladovsky. In an interior of station the symbolical image of Red Gate - decorative niches in poles, vaulted passes between poles, passes to escalators is imprinted, the arch of the central hall and finishing of poles are made of red Georgian marble. In 1938 at the International World Fair in Paris the project of metro station Red gate was received by Gran - at.
The house where M. Yu. Lermontov was born, was absolutely nearby. On its place in 1949-1953 by the architect A. N. Dushkin it was constructed high-rise administratively - a residential building on which first floor the second, northern exit from the subway Red gate was arranged. Since 1962 the station was called Lermontovska, and in 1986 it became the first station of the Moscow subway to which returned the historical name.