Defense Adzhimushkaya in 1942. Why defenders of garrison did not eat rat tails and pads?
one of the most known and long “underground“ wars in the history of mankind began on May 16, 1942. In the Crimea, near Kerch, fighters of RKKA went to stone quarries and contrary to all forecasts created there, underground, really efficient army.
Army which annoyed Hitlerites fighting sorties so effectively that Germans were enraged: in defiance of all international conventions of defenders of stone quarries Adzhimushkaya began to poison with fighting gases which basic element was a chlorine. With the German punctuality put the timer for 8 hours of continuous supply of gas and let in terrible mix through natural ventilation of a vault.
Hitlerites knew technical characteristics of our means of protection from gas attacks, in particular, of a gas mask of the Soviet production which was capable to sustain at most 8 hours of attack. Here fascists also forced not minute less gas under the earth where the Soviet fighters, women, children died.
Being in stone quarries Adzhimushkaya now, the tourist feels that he for an instant got to an underworld. How there people lived and were at war?! Miraculously, but ours in 1942 - m were dug round here for a long time. Fritsa tried to smoke, banish defenders, but soldiers of RKKA from specially equipped narrow loopholes “mowed“ manpower of the enemy with swastikas on overcoats.
The garrison Adzhimushkaya under Pavel Yagunov`s command, thus, was similar to a sick splinter in a body: it did not allow Germans to throw military units from - under Kerch to the aid of the regular army besieging Sevastopol. Perhaps, the Russian Slava Sevastopol`s city would not sustain so long if not garrison Adzhimushkaya. Germans furiously tried to break in darkness of stone quarries, but found most often one - the death. And then fascists as I already mentioned, decided to suffocate underground inhabitants gas.
The garrison Adzhimushkaya totaled up to 10 000 Soviet people. But when the killing gas hissed … As one of commanders of defense wrote in the diary, after of the first gas attack about 3 500 people survived. Mass destruction of people fighting gases was not the last test among those terrible burdens that Adzhimushkaya was necessary to endure to defenders. How fighters and the civilians which adjoined them in those inhuman conditions were at war?
When you go down in stone quarries Adzhimushkaya on a track today, under the earth, a path to the tourist electric light lamps, but also they are not capable to dispel a local impenetrable gloom. It is necessary to go with lamps and to shine itself under legs and on a ceiling because height reached it at most 162 cm. Only the child could stamp here, having completely become straight. Outer darkness!
Our fighters in 1942 - m to year, without having lamps, thought up to cut car tires on thin rags and to set fire to them. Those burned, smoked a ceiling, hammered with ashes easy, mucous a nose, bronchial tubes, but gave though some light. Still the Russian lucid minds thought up to do in a sleeve of a big shell an opening into which inserted a match, and filled in the fulfilled lubricating oil in a sleeve cavity. Something turned out like an icon lamp. Light was so got.
When there were no make-shifts to extract fire, thought up simply to pull a telephone wire between various parts of stone quarries. Touching on it hands, fighters of RKKA and civil in total darkness moved from one room in another. For example, from “barracks“ in so-called “staff“. These names are conditional because rooms per se underground were not available.
ThirstNot without reason one of wells from which fighters of underground garrison tried to scoop water for the needs called
the Life Well. Defenders Adzhimushkaya came upward behind a water bucket, as for hunting, groups. One went with empty buckets, other group scooped water from a well, to them fighters of the first right there threw empty buckets. The third group covered the back with fire as wells well were exposed to fire of Germans on the open place and human losses of our soldiers at an intake of water were catastrophic. The bucket of water was equated to a bucket of soldier`s blood.
Then fighters began to try to dig in a gloom of a vault - to hollow the underground wells. It was necessary to work in the conditions of a chronic lack of air, in a soot of torches, with shovels, picks, to drag breed hands, to hollow a stone, to cut it. Infernal work, but water it was necessary as air. The wounded fighter needed on norm of all two tablespoons waters in days, the same who could move independently had to extract to themselves liquid. Someone looked for places where from walls water dripped, and substituted under this place the turned helmets, flasks.
Crews from the strongest fighters with a good dykhalka were specially created. The matter is that underground in some places the stone has spongy structure and there water exudes. If to make a hole in the small course in a stone and to put there a tubule (we will tell, isolation from a cable) and at the same time strongly to involve air and moisture in ourselves, then several droplets got into a mouth. It is impossible to swallow! Everything gathered in a mouth and otplevyvatsya carefully. One fighter - the getter of moisture could gain per day up to 800 ml of muddy liquid it here in the way.
Fascists blocked all ways of transfer of the food from above, from the earth at all. Once the population of nearby villages lowered to defenders simple food through secret passages. Sometimes it was possible to transfer the whole mare under the earth. She was killed, cleaned, separated hoofs, ripped skin. Meat was cooked, and people for some time gorged on. Waste dug in, but soon dug out them and digested anew. With worms, with rotten stuff, with decay...
Fascists tried to discover passes and manholes that connected a vault and the Earth`s surface, and planted aviation bombs there. Explosions shook everything around, people in stone quarries became deaf at all, but - survived. Hunger “mowed“ all. Fighters began to eat rats, cooked tops of boots. There was the system of eating of rodents. Was considered that it is impossible the rat has pads and a tail, they were chopped off at once and threw out because the rat pads ran on decomposed bodies and garbage. And, respectively, swept all this with a tail. So ate only a carcass.
of the Wound and illness
the Tourist can see the rusted operating table on which then did the most difficult surgeries in Adzhimushkaye now. Amputations of extremities, opening of an abdominal cavity, wounded backbone operation and other. All this most often became without anesthesia. Generally there was nothing anesthetic! In stone quarries the huge reserve of sugar (here it was stored even before war) remained, and now soldiers learned to drive from it moonshine. The patient was given before extensive operation a glass of moonshine and - to cut … Sometimes it was possible to get a tsigarka, a papiroska for imaginary calm.
After visit of a memorial of Adzhimushkay near Kerch there is a feeling of horror from ability of people to create the Evil, but also the pride wave rolls that other people protected us in far 1942 in a vault gloom. Honor and Slava to all garrison Adzhimushkaya under Pavel Yagunov`s command!