What is the service of space weather engaged in? Part 2
Activity of the Sun in different days is not identical. There are long-term cycles of increase and decrease of solar activity. The periods of these cycles are known and are used for forecasting in the future. But precisely to predict
in what day and hour there will be a sharp emission of substance and radiation from the Sun subsoil, it is not possible. Exactly as well as to predict exact date and time of earthquakes on our planet. It is defined by internal processes of a star and the planet which are difficult for “probing“ deep into.
Though attempts, of course, are. For example, for sounding of a subsoil of Earth mechanical waves and sets of the sensitive sensors carried on certain distances are used. On time delay in way and to places of an entrance - an exit it is possible to restore slightly curved trajectory and density of substance on the way of a wave. But with the Sun so not to make. Just it is necessary to observe it.
It is observed in the different ranges of lengths of waves from land and space telescopes. The X-ray, an ultraviolet, visible light - pictures in all ranges give an idea of the different depths of the Sun and processes proceeding in its spheres. The X-ray passes a lot of substance through therefore, radiated from Sun depth, it can come to light and give us information on deep life of a star.
But there is still a set of inconveniences. The sun throws up not just substance, and charged particles. Such fly along lines of a magnetic field. The sun has a magnetic field and at the same time rotates round its pivot-center. As a result the trajectory of the thrown-out particles appears in the form of spirals. Such spirals dispersing from the Sun complicate a question whether these particles to Earth will get or is wrapped aside?
Actually the emissions coming to Earth on spirals are on a reverse side of the Sun. From Earth and its space telescopes they cannot be seen. For the solution of this problem of the USA launched two satellites (STEREO project) which watch the Sun on the other side of (!) . It is worth noticing that distance from Earth to these satellites more than two hundred million kilometers. In general, it is necessary to recognize that in pilotless development of other planets this country moves quickly and surely. They have in plans already the most distant planets of Solar system and... an exit out of its limits. As far as there will be enough residual resource of devices. Russia was engaged in people on Earth orbit more at this time.
The problem of understanding of space weather still becomes complicated if to remember that turn-around time near poles of the Sun is not equal to turn-around time for its equator. It is possible to present figuratively what would be on Earth if Africa quickly moved along the equator, coming off Asia and trying to squeeze into the Gulf of Mexico. From - for advancings stretchings and ruptures of the heated streams in middle latitudes occur rotation of the equator of poles of the Sun there constantly. Such unpredictable gaps much more complicate forecasting of future “eruptions“ for the Sun.
As Earth has a magnetic field, and moving charges create the magnetic field, the total field near Earth changes. Call it action of “solar wind“ on a magnetosphere. The structure of a magnetosphere of Earth is very difficult, its scheme can be found in the Internet by the inquiry of the same name in search. Changes of a magnetic field influence health of some of people, especially sensitive to it. Actually, magnetic storms are and there is a sharp strengthening of solar wind and demolition of a magnetosphere towards a tail.
We did not concern emission by the Sun of particles of a neutrino yet. However, they very few people concern. Almost do not interact with substance and there pass all planets (including all Earth and us) through without the slightest consequences. Scientists even had to build special underground laboratories with highly sensitive sensors that though several times a year to catch on one such particle. Did not know about them at all while in nuclear physics strange reactions where law of conservation of momentum was broken were not open. Only then scientists assumed that reaction leaves not two, but three particles, one of which did not manage to be registered.