What is the service of space weather engaged in? Part 1
the weather forecast which is daily reported by a country hydrometeorological service is well familiar to All. But not everyone knows that in this organization there are also other directions. The service of space weather too constantly watches a state of environment of our planet in space scale. it would Seem to
what special can change outside our planet? For most of people interplanetary vacuum - a blank space where there is nothing. And in many respects it is right. But only not for geophysicists and astronomers. These people know that in an open space there is a set of particles, fields and waves. And near stars (for example, the Sun) it is regularly possible to wait for the different emissions caused by internal life of a star. As this life occurs in the form of large-scale thermonuclear reactions, its echoes can be noticeable on all next planets, including Earth.
That it was clear why to service of space weather to support big networks of special measuring devices (special land and onboard space sensors, probes and other), I will tell at once who uses its forecast.
In - the first, it is necessary for a long-distance radio communication behind the horizon. Existence of the carrying-out area of the atmosphere allows to have a radio communication behind the horizon thanks to reflection from Earth ionosphere. Available frequencies of such radio communication strongly depend on a condition of an ionosphere. The wrong choice of frequency leads to a signal exit through an ionosphere in space. Naturally, the signal vanishes in collection point. Therefore it is necessary to know a condition of an ionosphere and activity of extraterrestrial sources which create it.
In - the second, it is important to control centers of flights of satellites to know when to be ready to the noticeable raising of an ionosphere of Earth causing braking of low-orbital satellites. Each satellite which fell for such reason - heavy losses of outstanding or unfinished mission. At the same time it is not always expedient to launch satellites on big heights. For example, quality photographing needs to be conducted with the minimum heights.
In - the third, the ionosphere of Earth influences the accuracy of systems of navigation of GPS, GLONASS and similar. For inhabitants excess 10 meters seldom big difference, but for construction, marking of the land plots and other tasks with determination of coordinates is better to have accuracy in shares of millimeters.
At last, changes of a magnetic field and magnetic storms influence health of some people. Too it is important to them to know when it is worth being prepared for weakness or, on the contrary, emotional excitement (at whom as), not connected with their individual vital circumstances.
But we will begin one after another. All of us heard about the “black holes“ which are in many corners of each galaxy. As a result of nuclear explosion of a black hole the burning-down star and planetary system is formed of large splinters around. Large parts after explosion fly away nearby, take spherical shape and harden. These are planets. At distance the star slightly heats them radiant energy from the continuing nuclear reaction that we also feel on the street in clear summer day, sunbathing on the Sun.
By the way, density of a black hole - many thousands of tons on cubic centimeter. Only at such density chain nuclear reaction on all substance can go. Therefore such destiny does not threaten our planet, whatever experiments put scientists in CERN colliders.
Similar explosions happen to the birth of new stars in different corners of a galaxy constantly. At explosion except large splinters there are many small. The they it is less, the quicker take off for explosion time. Most quicker separate particles fly. These are particles of high energiya - galactic space beams. Such particles are capable to ionizovat and accelerate many other neutral particles which will meet on their long way on a galaxy.
The galactic space beams which arose at the birth of new stars face also Earth. Near Earth under the influence of its magnetic field they go to poles and cause ionization “heavy rains“ in the top atmosphere which are late only in dense beds of the atmosphere. Satellites have no protection of the atmosphere therefore their solar batteries have to be specially steady against “firings“ by particles of high energiya. The word “heavy rains“ has no relation to rainfall in habitual sense here.
Except the general galactic processes there are also closer sources of radiations and particles connected with life of our already been born star - the Sun. Constant radiation of the Sun - not only visible light. Constantly are present at Sun radiation both the x-ray radiation, and ultra-violet. Facing Earth, these radiations ionizut an upper atmosphere, creating “ionosphere“. In a prizemny layer where there is life, only the small part of the coming sunlight reaches: visible light and soft ultraviolet. Energy of a X-ray and rigid ultraviolet completely turns into formation of an ionosphere.
Despite it, with increase in number of polar flights Europe - America there was a question of accumulation of a radiation dose the crews which are often making such flights. In polar regions during strong space influences there are not only Polar lights pleasant to an eye, but also the radiation background getting into such time from space up to the heights of air transportation slightly raises.