As well as than there lives St. Petersburg? Heating, lighting, gasification of
Presently when the sewerage, gas, cold and hot water, electricity, phone, the Internet is in each apartment, life of the simple citizen is simply and pleasantly adjusted. At the same time if repeatedly duplicated systems nevertheless refuse, then inhabitants of “the struck house or the area“ just are forced to leave the residence because life there sometimes is simply impossible.
Leningrad residents remember events of the end 70 - x years when in most - the razsamy new district of the city, in “Commandant`s airfield“ where the very first houses were just put into operation and where the first tens of thousands of inhabitants were just installed, the main pipe of hot water supply bringing heating to the new area where did not manage to construct the boiler room yet burst in the winter. As the pipe underground was opened throughout tens of meters, repair had to be postponed until heat. And residents of the area, in the majority, parted till spring on relatives and acquaintances because to survive in the modern apartment at - 20 degrees awfully difficult.
And here what was to live earlier? In times “prehistoric“ when there was neither phone, nor electricity, nor gas, nor... (“The grandmother as to you, probably it was terrible when you were small, and dinosaurs ran around!“ (c))
Heating of caves, and subsequently and houses, was historically carried out by naked flame. In caves fires burned, fires turned into the centers, the centers were displaced to a wall of the building and became fireplaces, furnaces appeared then. St. Petersburg was heated the 19th century generally furnaces, though fireplaces there too were in the course, but it is more as decorative elements of especially rich apartments.
And so was (on the whole) approximately to the middle of the 20th century when in houses there was a central heating which replaced oven and houses began to be heated not by firewood and coal, but batteries with hot water from a boiler room.
In the beginning boiler rooms were small, but presently new boiler rooms - just giants of production of heat, and everyone heats thousands of houses.
By the way, in the north of Leningrad still in the middle of 80 - x years several honeycombs of boiler rooms worked. At the same time 99% of all houses of northern part of Leningrad were heated by two - three of them.
As St. Petersburg was the capital, in comparison with other cities of Russia, it was “more progressive“. And lighting in it appeared together with Peter I`s decrees.
The first four city streets leaving in the Peter and Paul Fortress received lamps and night-time lighting even on November 23, 1706. However, regular lighting of the central streets constant lamps was carried out since 1723.
Till 1788 lighting of streets was made at the expense of the state. And since August, 1788 lighting was assigned by the decree of the empress Ekaterina to merchants. Well, and merchants, naturally, tried to gain each kopek. Including - due to the lighting: the oil lamps lighting city streets till 1835 were very dim.
But progress did not stand still, in 1835 society of lighting by gas of St. Petersburg“ was formed “And in the downtown there was a gas lighting. And in 1849 appeared alcohol - turpentine lamps. And till 1860 illumination of St. Petersburg was strongly combined - in the center it was gas, and further from the center - oil and alcohol - turpentine.
But when in 1860 on city streets 6000 kerosene lamps appeared, oil and turpentine lighting stopped.
Electric lighting began with lighting in 1873 one of city streets (Odessa) Lodygin`s lamps, further there was a fight “progressive, but expensive“ with “old, but cheap“. In process of reduction in cost “progressive“, electric lighting won more and more city streets, and by 1918 already all lamps on streets of St. Petersburg were electric.
And in 1920 they went out. For two years. Lighting of streets of Petrograd was resumed in 1922 and continues to this day. Only measures of ensuring this lighting and types of bulbs change.
Houses of St. Petersburg were lit with candles in the beginning. Very expensive pleasure, simple people then were lit with gratuitous luchina.
Then except candles began to use also the oil lamps pressed in the middle of the 19th century by oil lamps.
Since that moment as on Obvodny Canal the plant on production of gas was constructed, it was tried to be used for lighting and for domestic needs.
In the middle of the 19th century in houses of the city there was both a gas lighting, and gas stoves, but it cost very much, and therefore gas was brought only in a row houses on Nevsky Avenue and adjacent streets.
In 80 years of the 19th century in life electric lighting appeared. Kerosene and electricity fought in houses of the city to the most “almost“ final victory of electricity in 30 - e years of the 20th century.
Cooking of food in the city went in the Russian furnaces or on the plates heated by a tree, coal, peat in the beginning.
In the 19th century kerosene kerosene stoves were added to them. In 30 - e years of the 20th century in kitchens there was a kerosene stove and worked on an equal basis with kerosene stoves before the fullest gasification of Leningrad in 50 - 60 there - x years of the last century.
Though gasification of St. Petersburg began much earlier when on Obvodny Canal it was built 2 - y the gas plant making gas. At the same time production of gas was gradually reduced the price and the number of consumers grew. By 1915 in houses of St. Petersburg there were about 10000 gas stoves and about 20000 water heaters on gas.
Before war in Leningrad about 23000 apartments receiving gas from coke and gas plant on Obvodny Canal were installed gas.
After war the plant destroyed in blockade was restored and expanded, providing gas supply already of nearly 70000 apartments of the city.
Right after war Leningrad received generally slate gas. In 60 - e years from Stavropol began to deliver natural gas which mixed up with slate in the beginning. But soon, via the brought gas pipelines, the city began to use already only natural gas. At the beginning of 70 - x years, besides gasification of houses, the industry of the city also was transferred to gas.