The ARMENIAN ST. PETERSBURG
Instead of an opening speech What for all these three hundred years attracted with
St. Petersburg Armenians and what they gave to the city and the empire? And what the city and the empire gave to Armenia? And, of course, we will remember how many outstanding Armenian names for these three centuries enriched history of the Northern Capital, glorifying a high name of St. Petersburg. And the Armenian diaspora throughout all these centuries was extremely not numerous: let`s tell, at the end of the XIX century a little more than 2 thousand Armenians lived here, and in 1985 there were about 7 thousand. Only in the last, Post-Soviet years it quite strongly was replenished. Further I will give brilliant names from different areas of life thereby to show real integration of Armenians in St. Petersburg, then and in the Leningrad society, and through it and to Russia, and once and in the USSR. Today put them and the faultless biography cause deep respect in the country and the city. Naturally, it is only part of the list: physiologist L. A. Orbeli; orientalist I. A. Orbeli; the statesman, the count M. T. Loris - Melikov; painter I. K. Ayvazovsky; botanist A. L. Takhtadzhyan; ballerina A. Ya. Vaganova; industrialist and patron, count I. L. Lazarev; the mining operator and the patron, the prince S. S. Abamelik - Lazarev; inventor of color television, radio engineer O. A. Adamyan; physicist A. I. Alikhanov; admiral of fleet of the USSR I. S. Isakov; pilot, twice Hero of the Soviet Union N. G. Stepanyan; the archbishop Iosif Argutinsky - Dolgorukiy; sea captain, Hera sots. work A. M. Oganov; sculptor L. K. Lazarev; the actor P. B. Luspekayev …
A how many outstanding figures of Armenia in St. Petersburg - Leningrad got an education, absorbed high culture of thought of this city. And, coming back to Armenia, became pride of the nation and time: composers A. A. Spendiarov and M. G. Ekmalyan, architects A. I. Tamanyan and R. S. Israelyan, astrophysics V. A. Ambartsumyan, physicist A. A. Alikhanyan, historian Ya. A. Manandyan, philologist S. S. Malkhasyants, painters A. Ovnatanyan, G.Z. Bashindzhagyan and many others. It is not necessary to list all their ranks and awards - they are simply recognized.
At the same time many outstanding scientists and cultural figures of St. Petersburg - Leningrad went in for history of Armenia and studied the Armenian culture, cultures of Armenia closely cooperated with scientists also. I will cite as an example only some of precious names: A.S. Griboyedov, M. I. Glinka, N. A. Nekrasov, V. V. Stasov, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, A. K. Glazunov, D. I. Mendeleyev, N. Ya. Mar, K. S. Petrov - Vodkin, S. S. Rachmaninov, F. I. Shalyapin, B. B. Piotrovsky, S. A. Yesenin, I. M. Dyakonov, K. V. Trever, A. F. Ioffe, B. A. Turayev, I. P. Pavlov, V. V. Bartold, N. I. Vavilov, D. D. Shostakovich and many others.
For this reason raised become higher questions corner and demanding the answer. Really, St. Petersburg representing the capital of the Russian Empire made for Armenia as in XVIII, in the 19th centuries much, and at the beginning of HHv., already in the rank of the second capital during formation and development of the Soviet Armenia (after 1921) . Armenians in St. Petersburg, Petrograd and Leningrad were never supernumeraries. They were engaged in creative activity, were involved in high scientific thought, and many showed miracles of military valor. All of them brought the outstanding contribution in history of Russia and the Northern Capital. From recent St. Petersburg Armenians there are names of which the city and the country are proud by right: legendary polar explorer, outstanding scientist and statesman, Hero of the Soviet Union and Hero of Russia Artur Chilingarov and one of the largest painters of the generation, fantastic Zaven Arshakuni. Here two more unlike destinies from city life which are not noted yet by us in which the best qualities of the Armenian were brightly shown. Such is remarkable and unpredictable Armenian St. Petersburg …
About all this our narration.
Beginning. A Petrovsky era
Construction of the new capital opened Russia a way to is essential necessary modernization of the country and the power. Behind there were Dutch and English bourgeois revolutions, and Great French revolution, independence of the New World of England, and also the birth of the United States ahead loomed. The world entered the age of Enlightenment and adventurism. In 1703 the city building began. Bogs and bogs, a sad water smooth surface, here and there small villages in three - five houses, diseases of builders and a gossip of peasants, huge enthusiasm of the young tsar and his colleagues … Everywhere the Russian speech with impregnations of the Dutch, German, French, English, Italian, Finnish speech is heard … Without exaggeration, St. Petersburg was built by a half of the world. Built not only to ma, mansions, streets, squares, the areas and buildings, canals, embankments, fortress and moorings … But built economic and first of all torgovo - industrial communications, diplomatic relations were defined, built trade (including sea that were so desired!) ways also, literally, are expensive. Traded in the modern weapon without which Russia could not have ambitions here, on North - the West, neither in the south, nor in the east … If to be absolutely sincere - the new world order was under construction. And among first arrived on these questions to St. Petersburg there were Armenians. The tsar since the childhood knew how his father, the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich, treated large Armenian trading houses what he gave them privileges and as they adjusted trade with Iran, India and China. And Peter I in 1695 in the letter to the Persian shah demanded that all trade in silk concentrated in hands of the Armenian merchants would go through the main gate of the South - Astrakhan - to Moscow, and “that those Armenians to the state of imperial majesty with goods for trade to trade in the porubezhny cities were passed without detention with a vspomogatelstvo without any pomeshka“ [1, page 212]. So, Armenians the first specified that the new capital has to trade with Europe directly what the tsar because for this purpose and St. Petersburg was under construction was inexpressibly glad to.
Thinking of liberation of Armenia from - under a yoke of the Muslim countries, creating the independent national state, the Armenian elite of the end of the XVII beginning of the 18th centuries after long fluctuations was defined: it is necessary to enter by all means Armenia under protection of the Russian Empire, and in this direction took important and successful steps. In this question the opinion of the most notable houses of Armenia was extremely important. For many centuries Armenia for the first time had to be a part of the Christian empire. This process was very much helped by kind and long relationship of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich with the largest Armenian trading houses of Dzhulfy. It was extremely important also for Peter I for whom Armenia which is deeply in the south where he in every possible way aspired was a natural ally and the conductor of its strategic policy - replacement of Persians and Ottomans both from the Caucasus, and from Transcaucasia, and Ottomans also from the Black Sea and the Crimea. Domination in the Caucasus, and on the Black Sea, and also trade ways to India (with an exit to the ocean). All this there were extremely important components of future Russia as world power. And in this strategic policy Peter I (running forward, say, that further both Catherine II, and Nicholas I, and Alexander II &ndash will be supporters of this strategy; that is logic of development of policy of the empire) allocated to Armenians one of key roles. It is visible also under its decrees, and further - on the history, but the speech about it still ahead. Here deep knowledge of Armenians of outlook, psychology, culture and life of other people, their ability to convince had to play a considerable role, creating the atmosphere of original trust. During the military conflicts Armenians could advocate the interests them sided and the weapon. And, of course, huge economic opportunities of the Armenian trade capital were important argument in these questions. Though accession of Armenia to the Russian Empire took place not at Peter I, and almost in hundred years, and not all, and only East part, but despite it the mechanism of integration of Armenia and the Armenian people in Rossy I will hold down the empire was started at Peter I.
So, facts. In 1707. the ancestor of the Russian branch of a family of Makarov - Hastatov Safar Vasilyev addressed Peter I from the petition about permission to trade with the German lands (The sacred Roman Empire the German nation) directly from St. Petersburg, proceeding from the fact that the road through Arkhangelsk was longer, and, so, more expensively. So the relationship of St. Petersburg with the West began to be built up. Naturally, to Peter I this offer was to liking, and directly corresponded to its plans and intentions. So by 1710 the small colony of the Armenian merchants was proved in the city. It also began to build new trade ways, bringing Russia to the European market, and the European goods - on Russian. Armenians at the same time developed the relations with the South and the East, enriching St. Petersburg and these commercial relations. To understand force and power of the Armenian trading houses we will address the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant: “… at Armenians, some special type of trade spirit dominates, namely: they are engaged in an exchange, hiking from borders of China to Korso`s cape on the Guinean coast; it indicates a special origin of these reasonable and hardworking people which in the direction from North - the East to Hugo - the West pass almost all Old World and are able to find heartiest welcome at all people at which they happen; it proves superiority of their character...“ [2, page 572 - 573].
To the aforesaid I will refer to some more fragments from Peter I`s decrees as the proof. In the seventh paragraph of the decree of April 13, 1711 the following is told: “To increase the Persian bargaining and Armenians as it is possible to caress and facilitate in what decently to give hunting for their bigger arrival“ [3, page 663; 4, page 7]. The new capital gains gloss and greatness. And to Peter I intensive commodity turnover between St. Petersburg and the East, St. Petersburg and the West is important. May 2, 1711. the decree Peter I leaves for the Armenian merchants all rights and privileges in Russia [3, page 665; 4, page 8]. Already in the diploma of November 10, 1723 as a result of many merits in construction of St. Petersburg, Peter I, addressing the patriarch Isay and all Armenian people, speaks: “We declare to you through this our mercy diploma that We … you with your surnames in our High Imperial patronage accepted … and a ponezha We the honest Armenian people for the sake of Christianity, in our osoblivy favor soderzhivy …“ [3, page 137].
One of the first large Armenian merchants who lodged in St. Petersburg was Luka Shirvanov, the owner of the Astrakhan and Kizlyar factories for manufacture of silk and cotton fabrics. It arrived to St. Petersburg in 1708 and founded the trading house. By 1710 “the Armenian offices“ were open . By this time the number of Armenians reached about 50 people. It were large merchants and skillful handicraftsmen. The fact that in 1726 90% russko - the European trade were the share of the new capital &ndash was extremely curious; St. Petersburg. Or, say, the cost of the goods passing through Astrakhan and St. Petersburg (one of the major trade ways already worked), made 2 749 659 rub where 80% of this turn the Armenian merchants [6 conducted, page 6; 7]. At the beginning of 1730 - x years on Vasilyevsky Island near Sredny Avenue and present 3 lines there was Armyanskaya Street where the earth belonged to Luka Shirvanov in the beginning, and then to other Armenian merchant, the shipowner, the manufactories and houses which were located in close proximity to the Winter Palace, to the famous jeweler Artemy Sheriman. Armyanskaya Street was two steps away from pier, and to it there is an explanation - it was demanded by trade business. By the way, there was also the first Armenian church, it was wooden and soon burned down, did not remain.
This decade (1740 - 1750 - e) he was considered as the head of the Armenian community of St. Petersburg. The community needed the Armenian church. In 1714 vardapt (archimandrite) Minas addressed the subchancellor baron Shafirov “… about the permission to build in St. Petersburg the Armenian church“ [4, page 538]. And Anna Ioannovna`s decree of March 11, 1740 the Armenian community got permission to this construction.
Catherine the Great by
But only at Catherine the Great`s government carried out a milestone event: in St. Petersburg on Nevsky Avenue the church (architect Yu. M. Felten), worthy the status of the Armenian colony was acquired. To the address of one of men of weight of Russia of that time I. L. Lazarev the empress sent the nominal decree where in particular it was told to the Senate: “As since the time of the Sovereign Emperor Peter I it was permitted here and in Moscow to build the Armenian churches, in owing to that and We nowadays rule to permit to Armenians to construct for departure on their belief of church service here …“ [8, page 163]. The site under church was acquired “in situation, notable at the capital, on Bolshoy Avenue, against stone Gostiny dvor“ [c it. on: 9, page 3]. The Armenian community spent 33 thousand more rubles for construction of the church. During 1771 for 1776 it was built. And on February 18, 1780 in the presence of eight priests, all flock Armenian and the prince Potemkin Tavrichesky one of the most authoritative archbishops of the Armenian church of that time, the prince Iosif (Ovsep) Argutinsky (from the most ancient princely sort of Armenia), consecrated church for the sake of the great martyr Ekaterina, the heavenly patroness of the empress. In spite of the fact that on lighting the Empress was not, she further more than once visited the Armenian church and ordered prayers. The first Armenian printing house was founded right after consecration of church, in 1780 - e years, but worked not for long. Since 1800 at church the Armenian school, and since 1812 and constant printing house [10, tt began to function. 33 - 34].
Coming back to outstanding names of the Armenian community of St. Petersburg, say, that it were really influential people having extensive communications both at the Russian yard and in the European countries, in Iran, India, in the Arab world. For example, the same Ivan Lazarevich Lazarev at Catherine the Great`s government was at the same time both the adviser for east affairs, and the adviser of the State bank of Russia, with success carrying out not one assignment of diplomatic and financial character. The fact about the well-known diamond which in literature has several names is interesting: “The great Mogul“, “Derianur“, “Lazarevsky“, “Russian“, “Amsterdam“. It entered modern literature under the name of “Eagles“ (the 195th carat) because it was acquired by the favourite of the empress of that time count Mr. Orlov and was brought to Catherine II in day of her name day in 1774. The well-known diamond is stored in Diamond fund of Armory of the Moscow Kremlin also today, decorating a scepter of the Russian monarchs. And so this unique diamond was bought by Orlov with direct participation of Ivan Lazarev who often took part at especially valuable jeweler acquisitions of the aristocracy and the yard because he was also a court jeweler. Of course, Lazarev were not the only influential rich Armenian family in St. Petersburg, were also Delyanova, Sumbatova, Mirzakhanova, Arapetova, Abameliki, Akhsharumova, Akhverdova … About them and many others conversation still ahead. But for generalization of an image of Ivan Lazarevich Lazarev we will talk about it. He owned manufactories of silk and cotton fabrics and, perhaps, the best at that time in Europe Fryazinsky factory. Lazarev bought from Stroganov mountain plants and salt mines in the Perm province and expanded production. At the same time I. L. Lazarev was the largest patron. He was familiar with V. A. Zhukovsky, I. A. Vyazemsky, A.S. Pushkin, Yu. M. Lermontov. I. L. Lazarev was the great patriot of Armenia. Under its direct management and together with the spiritual leader of the Russian Armenians of that time the prince, the archbishop Iosif Argutinsky he develops projects of liberation of Armenia and a reconstruction of the Armenian statehood podes protectorate of the Russian Empire. By then Russia, in the person of Catherine II, as a result of two russko - the Turkish wars annexed also Northern Black Sea Coast, Prikubanye, was fixed on the Black Sea, moved quite impressive part of Armenians of the Crimea in Prikubanye, having given big privileges and the chance to Armenians to develop economy, agriculture and crafts with the Caucasian people. These decades Armenians founded the cities New Nakhchivan, Armavir, Armyansk, the Sacred Cross (nowadays Budyonnovsk), Grigoriopolis. Thus, Catherine the Great in the south of the country designated two state-building ethnic vectors - Cossack and Armenian which had to, supplementing each other, to strengthen the Russian statehood at the southern boundaries.
From the political point of view the eighteenth century for Armenia passed the nineteenth century in expectation of Russia which very much came nearer and in essence it appeared in the Caucasus. Notable St. Petersburg Armenian houses, of course, had the communications and with meliksky - princely houses of Karabakh, Gandzak (Ganja) and Syunik. The most prepared for negotiations was the Karabakh, Ganja meliksky childbirth, they also sent to negotiations of the representatives. Entry into structure of Russia of Ganja is dated 1803, and Karabakh - 1806. Strategic policy of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and further in Transcaucasia during a wide interval of time, starting with Peter I and up to the end of HIHv., went in the tolerant course and for the benefit of Armenians. Yes, and Armenians were not idle all these decades, and up in arms as belief and the truth served Russia...
XVIIIV. in Armenia was critical because even in culture it is designated as the most subject Muslim, especially Persian, to influence. Let`s remind, the highest tops of the Armenian culture HVIIIV. - outstanding artists of Ovnatanyana and ingenious ashug - the poet Sayat - It is new. By the way, the son of the last after death of the father at the very beginning of HIHv. moved to St. Petersburg where left the clumsy, but touching translations of verses of the father into Russian.
Already in Patriotic war of 1812 soldiers - Armenians proved to be from the best party, having shown deep patriotism concerning the second homeland and as the glorified generals and as the highest officers. Here some names: V. G. Madatov, D. S. and I. S. Abameliki, M. Z. Argutinsky, D. I. Akhsharumov (by the way, he is known also as the first historian of Patriotic war of 1812 [10, page 6]), L. E. Lazarev, P. M. Melikov, D. A. Delyanov, N. N. Akhverdov, P. I. Arapetov, A. V. Hastatov and others. After brilliantly won victory over Napoleon, in 1816 Alexander I sends the hero of Patriotic war of 1812 of the prince V. G. Madatov to commanders to Karabakh.
But work on liberation of Armenia from persidsko - an Ottoman yoke continued up to establishment of the Soviet power in Russia (October, 1917). For now Russia, in the person of the emperor Nicholas I, began to act on the southern &ndash direction more surely; so it designated “east question“. There are no doubts that profound knowledge of the emperor in this “question“ was prepared and explained by N. I. Akhverdov who was Nicholas I`s mentor [11, page 144]. In 1828 between Russia and Persia the Turkmenchaysky peace treaty which finished russko - the Persian war (1826 - 1828) was signed. It is considered that East Armenia entered under protectorate of Russia exactly from now on. The same year Nicholas I signs the manifesto on war with Turkey (1828 - 1829) .
The emperor Nicholas I understood that disintegration of the Ottoman Empire is inevitable, and in every possible way made active the foreign policy, strengthening influence of Russia both in the Caucasus, and on the Balkans. For example, in Akhaltsikh - Akhalkalak from Erzurum and many villages of this area (the Western Armenia) a large number of Armenians moved, that having even more strengthened strategic positions of Russia in the Caucasus. Thus, the western Armenians showed the trust to Russia. Akhaltsikh - Akhalkalak (area Dzhavakhk, East Armenia) - the important strategic base connected about Kars - Ardagan who was precipitately entered by the imperial decree into structure of the Tiflissky province and further, during establishment of the Soviet power, was automatically included in structure of the Soviet Georgia, having cut off it from Armenia. Russia tried to fix Erzerum - Kars - Ardagan - Akhaltsikh to create new area with the center (depending on the circumstances) either in Kars, or in Erzerum. By this time passed more than hundred years as the Armenian diaspora in St. Petersburg was organized, and during this time (to Nicholas I`s government) we do not see essential changes in its structure unless increase in number of the Armenian youth in the St. Petersburg higher education institutions. With growth of influence of Russia in the European and east affairs also the role of Armenians as at court, and in economy etc. amplifies. Each new conflict with the Ottoman Empire, inspired the St. Petersburg Armenians, gave to them hope for liberation of the Western Armenia from - under Turkish a yoke. Thus, the Crimean war of 1853 - 1856 nominated a number of brilliant soldiers including generals, from the younger generation of Armenians. As an example I will take the general from an infanteriya, the hero of the Caucasian campaigns and the Crimean war, the member of the State Council prince Vasily Osipovich Bebutov. V. O. Bebutov`s family was one of the most ancient and most notable Armenian childbirth of Armenia. He was appointed by Nicholas I in 1830. the chief of the Armenian area, where deserved respect for the fair and effective board. By the way, V. O. Bebutov also differentiated the Armenian territories from Persia in favor of East Armenia (Russian Empire). Battle at the settlement of Kuryuk - gift (on July 24, 1854) was a wreath of his brilliant career in the Crimean war when the Russian army conceding on number more than three times crushed 60 - thousand Turkish army and put to flight it. Having received this report, Nicholas I exclaimed: “You surprised Russia, I will surprise you!“ the general - the lieutenant V. O. Bebutov also awarded, having jumped over all put awards and ranks, Andrew the First-Called`s award that in itself - exceptional case.
At Alexander II positions of the Armenian colony were even more strengthened. Merits of the most notable Armenian childbirth multiplied favor of governors of Russia. Surnames of fighting generals - Armenians, were very famous. It is a lot of soldier`s songs, stories Ter - Gukasov and I. D. Lazarev in russko - the Turkish war of 1877 - 1878 was composed both about Bebutov in the Crimean company, and about fearless A. A. Let`s in passing note that I. D. Lazarev`s authority in the Caucasus was so great that thanks to its personal participation twice revolt in Dagestan (1861 and 1863) pacified without bloodshed. And to it Shamil gave up. Merits in front of Russia and the outstanding statesman, the general from a cavalry are huge, the column M. T. Loris - Melikov who in 1861 was appointed the military chief of Southern Dagestan and the city`s mayor of Derbent, and since 1863 became the chief of the Tersky region and the city`s mayor of Vladikavkaz. Loris - Melikov, seeking to pacify the North Caucasian people, combined drastic repressive measures with measures socially - economic and cultural development of the region. Understanding tenor of life and outlook of the mountain people, Loris - Melikov created their new future because he understood that these people have to enter the real time created by the Russian Empire sooner or later. At the same time he was engaged in a reconstruction of the Armenian state, deeply understanding a role of Russia in this question. It specially in June, 1880 left to Berlin on a meeting with the archbishop M. Hrimyan who conducted negotiations with leaders of the European countries on this matter that the priest took his opinion into account and correctly would formulate tasks of Armenians before the Berlin conference. Hrimyan did not obey him. And in vain. And still, it was the first attempt to come to the international platform with a national problem and though it suffered full breakdown, it was important experience.
All aforesaid about the Caucasian companies confirms strategic thought and Peter I and Catherine II`s will of a role of Armenians as state-building nation in the Caucasus . I will in passing notice that in sixty years already Bolsheviks direct A. I. Mikoyan the secretary of regional committee to the Caucasus (since 1922) with similar mission. Thanking A. I. Mikoyana North Ossetia did not turn out as a part of the Soviet Georgia though both I. Stalin, and S. Ordzhonikidze insisted on that .
We will return to HIHv now. also we will sum up the result. All activity Loris Melikova shows a surprising harmony of his outstanding mind, will, character, intelligence - he is the brilliant commander in the Caucasus and in Turkey, he is the excellent organizer - the reformer in peaceful life, it and the deep statesman whose plans and by efforts Russia could avoid shocks if not death of the emperor.
Among outstanding Armenian childbirth in St. Petersburg were Delyanova which became famous also in Patriotic war of 1812, and in russko - the Turkish wars. Senator, the member of the State Council, the count Ivan Davydovich Delyanov, as well as Loris - Melikov, was a Honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and at the emperor Alexander III held a position of the general manager of property of its imperial majesty of Office of the empress Maria (since 1880) and further a post of the minister of education (1882) . I. D. Delyanov, holding a number of high state posts, in 1861 accepted also directorship of Public library which for 21 year of its board expanded the rights: turned into maintaining the ministry of national education from department of the imperial yard, that is became public. At it, except the traditional operations - OE, purchase, gifts - the book-exchange with many scientific institutions of Europe, Asia and America increased. And since 1874 he acquires the right to fill up funds of library without censorship. The public library, thanks to I. D. Delyanov, received in one copy all the books and articles excluded by censorship, directly from publishing houses. At it the department of manuscripts considerably was replenished. The count Delyanov was fluent French, German, English in languages, and also Latin. Its reasonable liberalization of many establishments of the empire promoted power of Russia, development of her educational thought, and also integration into the scientific world of Europe and America.
Democratic transformations, a narodovolchestvo, revolutionary trends did not avoid also the St. Petersburg Armenians. In St. Petersburg in 1862 in the Alekseevsky ravelin one of the most mysterious and influential people of modern Armenian history Mikael Nalbandian sat. It was encyclopedically formed, went in for philosophy, political economy, linguistics … In London Nalbandian met Herzen and Ogarev, was in India with secret mission about opportunities of liberation of Armenia and creation of the national state. Translated A.S. Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov and Heinrich Heine`s verses. Nalbandian possessed the magic power over minds of the advanced Armenian youth of several generations.
Already in the second half of HIHv. in St. Petersburg there was numerous, active and perfectly educated Armenian youth which is trained in many higher educational institutions of the capital. Interestingly and the fact that many talented young men and girls came from the province, from rather poor families. And the youth was imbued with spirit of free-thinking and patriotism. In St. Petersburg the circle of the intellectuals of “Maro“ (1880 - 1900) was organized grouped around M. Vardanyan and M. Seropyan, sotsiat future founders democratic party of “Gnchak“ which exists and until now. After the First Russian revolution in St. Petersburg many organizations appeared: The Armenian circle (1907 - 1918), Society of guardianship about Armenians (1907 - 1917), Armenians sky society of fine arts (1908 - 1917)...
We will sum up the intermediate result. Let`s call large persons in the field of architecture and art up to 1917, remembering that in St. Petersburg outstanding painters Ivan Ayvazovsky, Akop Ovnatanyan, Stepanos Nersesyan, Gevorg Bashindzhagyan studied. Here in St. Petersburg lived and the founder of historical painting in Armenia, the theatrical artist, the architect and W. Shakespeare`s translator worked for theater as V. F. Komissarzhevska Vardkes Surenyants. In the field of music it is enough to call outstanding composers M. Ekmalyan and A. Spendiarov who studied in the St. Petersburg conservatory at Rimsky-Korsakov. It is impossible to ignore also the opera singer, one of the best of the lyric poet - drama baritones of the time of B. Amirdzhanyants who was a graduate of the St. Petersburg conservatory and glorified alma mater in the best opera theaters of the world, including “La Scala“. It is enough to remind of speeches of the great actor, artist, poet and philosopher of Petros Adamyan in Arbenin and Hamlet`s roles in St. Petersburg. Here what was written by the Russian press about it: “There had to arrive the Armenian actor to prove to us that Lermontov is truly theatrical playwright“ (V. Chuyko). Adamyan was recognized as the best performer of a role of Hamlet of the second half of HIHv.: Ernesto Rossi who was considered by unsurpassed Hamlet, having seen Adamyan in this role, presented him the photograph with a donative inscription: “To Adamyan - To the First-ever Hamlet“.
Here future classics of architecture Gabriel studied Rubbed - Mikelov, Nikolay Buniatyan, Alexander Tamanyan. And. Tamanyan was elected the academician in 1914, and in 1917 and the chairman of the board of Academy of Arts.
Here, in St. Petersburg comprehended subtleties of historical thought outstanding historians of Armenia N. G. Adonts and Ya. A. Manandyan. Professor Sankt - the St. Petersburg university Adonts went in for history of Byzantium, the Armenian question, released the classical work “Armenia during Justinian`s Era“ (1908) . Works of the academician Manandyan concern many parties of national history as antique period of history of Armenia, in particular, Tigran Veliky`s reigns, and the Middle Ages. There is no wish to burden this article with numerous names though community history - it is also history of outstanding personalities. Really, it is impossible to hold back, say, archaeological expeditions of the academician N. Ya. Mara in Ania - to the medieval capital of Armenia, and about the edition M. Gorky in Petrograd in 1916. “Collection of the Armenian literature“. Or about donation by the prince Abamelik - Lazarev in the same 1916 its Roman yes chi (“Giving Abamelik“) Academies of Arts of Russia. Today here has sya Embassy of the Russian Federation in Italy.
In the period of Genocide of Armenians of 1915 in the Ottoman Empire the Armenian community and the Russian intellectuals helped the refugees who appeared in the capital as well as Armenia. However “damned days“ inevitably came (And. Bunin) revolutions of 1917
Everything that was endured by the capital and the Russian Empire, was an integral part of life and the Armenian colony which though was incommensurably less Moscow, but took the worthy place in modern and contemporary history armyano - the Russian relations. And the new stage of her life began since revolutionary 1917
the Soviet period
So, East Armenia was transformed to the First democratic republic (1918 - 1920) . But soon the First republic became Soviet. Petrograd is renamed into honor of the leader of the world proletariat, and Leningrad became one of the most active assistants in restoration of the industry, scientific thought and culture in the Soviet Armenia. By the way, one of the first and favourite heads of Armenia, Agassi Handzhyan, in 1930 was sent to Yerevan as the first secretary of the Central Election Commission of Armenia from Leningrad. According to the most probable version it was shot personally by L. Beria in 1936 in Tbilisi at the age of 35 years.
Since 30 - x years the country and the city adopt the program of industrialization. The Armenian diaspora of Leningrad occupied in the field of science, equipment, culture one of the leading places both in city life, and in country life. It is possible to explain with these circumstances rapid development of scientific thought and in Armenia because the Leningrad scientific community was a patron of young Armenian scientists. And close cultural ties of boundariesdu Leningrad and Yerevan became traditional for many decades.
Fundamental and applied sciences and equipment changed outlook of HHv., in vanguard there were a physics, aircraft, radio engineering, television, medical science (physiology, genetics, psychology), chemistry which began to develop in the country and in Leningrad where also the Armenian youth was given an opportunity to come to these advanced boundaries. So, the electrical engineer, the inventor of color television Hovhaness Adamyan (the author more than twenty inventions) at the beginning of the century patented in Germany (1907 - 1908) the project of receiving two-color, and in 1925 and the three-colored image. Or K. K. Artseulov`s achievements in gliding (by the way, he was a grandson of the artist I. K. Ayvazovsky). Its designs broke the first records of the USSR (1923 - 1925) . And gliding was a harbinger of aircraft and astronautics: for example, with gliding there began A. N. Tupolev, S. P. Korolev and A.S. Yakovlev. In the twentieth - the sixtieth years in Leningrad worked the largest scientists - Armenians, such as the physiologist L. A. Orbeli who headed physiology after I. P. Pavlov Institut. By the way, I. P. Pavlov put forward Leon Abgarovicha on the Nobel Prize, and only extreme anti-Soviet moods in the Swedish academy did not allow the outstanding scientist to receive a well-deserved reward. L. A. Orbeli was a founder and the head of Institute of evolutionary physiology and pathology of higher nervous activity of I. M. Sechenov (before the building of institute the monument to his founder is put), and also Institute of evolutionary biochemistry and physiology; for many years (1943 for 1960) he was chief Voyenno - medical academy. Let`s remember also his younger brother, the orientalist, the director of the Hermitage (1934 - 1951) I. A. Orbeli, whose courageous letter to Stalin stopped squandering of invaluable treasures of the Hermitage. And it is well visible from I. V. Stalin`s letter of I. A. Orbeli published in “the Stories of the Hermitage“ in 2000 by B. B. Piotrovsky. Now we will turn the look on V. A. Ambartsumyan`s astrophysics - the academic degree of the doctor of science was appropriated to it without protection. He was a vice rector I LIE on science, and then and the founder of department of astrophysics at the same university. At I. P. Pavlov`s institute one more outstanding scientist, the academician E. A. Asratyan, one of the most beloved pupils of the great scientist worked. In Leningrad the outstanding neurophysiologist, the academician A. I. Karamyan lived and worked. It is interesting that creation of Academy of Sciences of Armenia (1943) it was entrusted to Iosif Abgarovich Orbeli. He also became the first president of Academy of Sciences of Armenia. From 23 academicians of the first convocation of Academy of Sciences of Armenia 11 academicians the education was got in Leningrad. The outstanding linguist and the historian of culture, the academician N. Ya. Mar, are a lot of and successfully studying history and the culture of the most ancient people and civilizations which opened and investigating the medieval capital of Armenia of Ania , in the lecture 1925 in the Parisian Sorbonne introduced the surprising idea: “Certainly, any culture cannot be understood without impact of the nation on the nation and the return interferences, but the Armenian culture holds a specific place in this question. Being in the center of knot of the world international relations not only the modern, live world, but also nowadays dead cultural people of antiquity, Armenians were the first who else in the Middle Ages understood all value of universal interests and realized idea of a world history - business, certainly, huge, but also heavy …“ [15, page 18]. Conclusions of the outstanding scientist were that. Thanks to council of Mar under the direction of which B. B. Piotrovsky worked the young scientist was reorientated and instead of Ancient Egyptian began to be engaged in urartsky writing. So he forever cast in the lot with Armenia, with the ancient history of the region, with ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. Excavation Karmir Blura (1939 - 1971) and first book of B. B. Piotrovsky “History and culture of Urartu“ (1943) allowed the scientists of many countries of the world who is going in for history of Armenia more stoutly and more objectively to imagine its ancient civilization. It was break in the history of the ancient world. In 1944 the young scientist brilliantly defended the doctoral dissertation in Yerevan and … married clever and charming Rhipsime Dzhanpo ladyan which in 1945 in the same place, in Yerevan, gave birth to the firstborn Mikhail Piotrovsky, the current director of the Hermitage. M. B. Piotrovsky made for promotion of culture of Armenia much and a prodolzha the tel of nice affairs of the chief keepers of the great museum proved to be as worthy.
The Great Patriotic War was great test of spirit and character for all people of the USSR. And, of course, an unprecedented feat of the Leningrad residents defending the city, the honor and advantage of all 900 days of blockade. Mass heroism of Leningrad residents and defenders of the city forever will remain in the history of mankind. Now we will dare to tell that in the blockade chronicle of the great city there were both special events, and individual heroism of each of the nations. Here we see also the Armenian names. Volunteer K. I. Shchelkin (Metaksyan), future three times Hera sots. work, the founder and the chief designer of the nuclear center Chelyabinsk - 70. Further, tankman, Hero of the Soviet Union A. S. Mnatsakanov (Red Village, Kipen, Voyskovitsa). He headed a field post of crew, it is its tank company of the first broke through a cordon and connected to the advanced parts 2 - y shock army. Let`s remember names of pilots, Heroes of the Soviet Union, G. G. Agamirov, L. S. Chapchakhchyan, twice the Hero of the Soviet Union N. G. Stepanyan. The last two died, protecting Leningrad and Baltic. At Pulkovsky heights from a direct hit of an enemy shell the fighting general B. O. Galustyan whose name called one of streets of St. Petersburg died. At sinyavinsky heights the commander of a machine-gun company Vartapetyan fell death brave, the memorial board on the place of events established by soldiers - veterans is devoted to a feat of its company, and it is especially valuable. At the same time in the most besieged city the director of the Hermitage academician I. A. Orbeli did everything possible to rescue masterpieces of world art from destruction. Under its management in the besieged city the staff of the Hermitage did not stop either scientific, nor educational activity. Running forward we will tell that the academician I. A. Orbeli was one of accusers on cultural values during the Nuremberg process over the German fascism. And winter of 1941 in the far village of Sanain that in mountains of northern Armenia, the crossings which became thin and tortured by fear through the Ladoga ice and the long road the Leningrad children of orphanage found heat and caress. The same who was deserted exactly here found the family. The Leningrad orphans were adopted and adopted, having forever found new and a home.
All post-war decades the Armenian diaspora in Leningrad continued to work wholeheartedly in all major projects of both the city, and the Soviet Union, whether it be military industrial complex or oriental studies, medicine or space exploration and, of course, culture. Here only some names: the great tragedian, the people`s artist of the USSR Vagram Papazyan, the general designer of CDB Rubin, the academician E. A. Gorigledzhyan, the general designer of experimental design bureau of V. Ya. Klimov, the academician A. A. Sarkisov, professor Yu. A. Petrosyan, Institut for many years heading of oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the president of Office of botany of the International union of botanical sciences, the academician A. L. Takhtadzhyan, one of creators of a moon rover, the academician CANCER, professor A. L. Kemurdzhyan, the director of scientific research institute of Obstetrics and gynecology of Otto, the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science E. K. Aylamazyan, long-term glavrezh theater of V. F. Komissarzhevska R. S. Agamirzyan, chief children`s neurosurgeon of Russia, doctor of medical sciences V. A. Hachatryan, outstanding pediatrician, professor A. V. Papayan, brilliant organist, honored actress of Russia, professor N. Oksentyan, chief designer of LOMO, Doctor of Engineering B. K. Ionnesyan, film director, people`s artist of Russia Sergey Mikaelyan, cinema - and the theatrical artist Marina Azizyan … Reorganization brought to
a freedom of choice. The famous literary critic N. B. Bank presented to Matenadaran a unique collection of books from meeting of a vizantolog of the doctor of historical sciences A. V. Bank, the schoolgirl I. A. Orbelya. Leningrad felt proximity of Armenia, her spirituality and its internal dostoinst in. It was reflected and in two events which took place in 1988
during the Karabakh events the Leningrad intellectuals very much were interested in what occurs in Yerevan. In the second half of May, 1988. the intellectuals of Leningrad gathered in the House of writers firsthand to learn the truth from the activists of the Karabakh movement of that time delegated by Yerevan.
Many outstanding cultural figures supported fair requirements of the Armenian people. Especially it would be desirable to mark out the famous Leningrad poet Mikhail Dudin who in disturbing months of the first opposition in armyano - the Azerbaijani conflict literally vanished in Armenia. It one took off by helicopter for Stepanakert to understand what occurs in blockade Karabakh where the Azerbaijani and Soviet troops committed excesses. And having returned to Yerevan, openly acted in Matenadarana. All intellectuals of Yerevan listened to the Leningrad poet - the veteran with disturbing and warm attention. It was the fair and objective rush of the Russian poetry to the area of the historical truth. It was the voice of the original friend.
The Spitak earthquake opened hearts of simple Leningrad residents whose help to the affected areas of Armenia was disinterested and worthy. And the Armenian community did not know either a dream, or rest. Armenia saw and accepted a high human brotherhood of Leningrad, that brotherhood which will remain in heart of Armenia as a light sign of compassion and love.
The second half 80 - x passed years under the sign of Perestroika moods where publicity was the most important vector of the truth. On July 11, 1988 decision of executive committee of the Leningrad city council St. church building. Revivals (Vasilyevsky Island) which for many years served the masterful sculptor, it was transferred to the Armenian religious association. Literally in several months the church of Rise, the first of all Armenian churches closed in the territory of the USSR, was opened for parishioners. Church of St. Catherine which served many years as a warehouse for theatrical sceneries was returned only in 1992. according to the decision already city halls of St. Petersburg. It in 60 years! The vigorous, clever and friendly spiritual pastor Ezras, own example of diligent diligence managed to gain trust of the parishioners, to rally the Armenian colony of St. Petersburg. Commitment and diligence, will, pure thoughts were necessary love for God and to people, to rally Armenians around problems of a colony and to restore the devastated churches. The young priest managed to unite and consolidate very different highly intellectual Armenian society of that time in many respects and to revive former greatness of “a blue pearl“ of Nevsky Avenue - Churches of St. Catherine.
So, the USSR failed, and Russia and Armenia became the sovereign states. Free Russia and free Armenia became strategic partners in the Caucasian and Middle Eastern regions. On June 12, 2000 St Catherine`s temple was consecrated by the Supreme Patriarch - Catholicos of all Armenians Garegin II. At celebrations about it there was a Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Alexy II, the management of the city, hierarches Armenian Apostolic and Russian Orthodox Churches, representatives of various faiths, deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, Legislative assembly of St. Petersburg, and also a diplomatic corps.
I today, in 2010, almost in quarter of the century we see fruits of continued works now of the bishop and Head Novo - the Nakhchivan and Russian diocese of Ezras Nersisyan.
Ruben Angaladyan (Philosopher, culturologist. Author of 20 books and 400 articles.)
Sources and literature
1. “Armyano - the Russian relations in the 17th century.“ t 1., Yerevan, 1953.
2. I. Kant With / With, t. VI, M., 1966.
3. Complete collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, T. IV, (1700 - 1712) No. 2349 SPb., 1830.
4. Collection of the acts relating to a review of history of the Armenian people, P.1. M, 1833.
5. TsGIARF. T. 880. Op. 5. 108. L. 12
6. AN news. Armenia. Social sciences. No. 8. Yerevan, 1956.
7. Three centuries of St. Petersburg. 18th century. Encyclopedia. Book 1, SPb. 2001.
8. TsGIA SPb. T. 19. Op. 1. 7795. L. 1.
9. Illumination of Church of St. Catherine in St. Petersburg. SPb., 2001.
10. Baziyants A. P., the Truth is more interesting than legends, M., 1975.
11. Zvezda magazine, 1990, No. 5.
12. Zombart V., Jews and economic life. M.: Ayrispress, 2004.
13. I. V. Stalin`s archive, RGASPI.
14. Mar N. Ya., Ania. Book history of the city and excavation on the place of the ancient settlement, L. - M, 1934.
15. Mar N. Ya., Armenian culture, Yerevan, 1990.
of ARMENIAN PETERSBURG
What has attracted Armenians in Petersburg for 300 years and what have they given to the city and the empire? And what has the empire and the city given to Armenia? How many Armenians enriched the history of the Northern capital, bringing fame toPetersburg? Meanwhile, Armenian Diaspora has not been numerous for all those centuries. At the end of the 19th century there were a little more than 2 thousand Armenians, and in 1985 there were about 7 thousand. The community has considerably enlarged only in the recent, post - Soviet period. The Armenian Diaspora in Petersburg and then in Leningrad worked wholeheartedly in all the spheres of activ ity of the city and the country; military - industrial establishment and oriental studies, medicine and space, and, of course, culture.
“21 - y the CENTURY“, No. 4, 2010
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