The book - the best gift? At the General conference which was taking place in November, 1995 in Paris proclaimed
of UNESCO on April 23 in the World afternoon of books and copyright. Date is chosen not incidentally. This day Maurice Dryuon, Halldor Laxness, the Mat Zalka, Manuel Mekhia Vallejo were born; Miguel de Cervantes, Inka Garsilaso de la Vega, and great William Shakespeare in general died “managed“ this day both to be born and to die.
One of the first forms of books - rolls which were made of the papyrus. One of the most significant rolls was found in 1855 at excavation of the Ancient Egyptian city of Thebes. Now it is stored in the British museum in London. On the papyrus many known Ancient Greek works, including “Illiada“ are written. The roll of this great poem is developed in length almost on 150 meters.
Then development was gained by other form of books - the code. As writing material served in the basic parchment, stronger and durable, than the papyrus, but also the road. The most famous code - “Sinai“, found in St. Catherine`s Monastery on the Sinai Peninsula.
These expensive writing materials were succeeded by the invaluable Chinese invention - paper, and development of book business went more in high gear. The most ancient book written on paper is dated 866. The first remained Russian book is “Ostromirovo Evangeliye“ (1057). This book is stored in the State public library of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin in St. Petersburg.
The mankind moved to the most important invention - publishing. The books handwritten extended small copies that strongly braked the historian - cultural progress. And here Johann Gutenberg, having connected all achievements of printing technologies together, created a way of mass production of books. The “Bible“ published in 1455 in Mainz became the first such full printing edition (it is the most expensive book in the world - about $40 million) .
Printing process began to gain steam, bringing not only the benefit, but also a headache to governors. Still books were written generally in monasteries or in imperial skriptoriya that allowed the authorities to control the thoughts put in them.
But here the book thought escaped on a scope, having created certain problems. “The book - huge force“ - long before the Lenin capacious phrase the mighty of this world who saw dangerous weapons of mass destruction in publishing realized and understood it. Therefore the edition of books was put practically at once under control of the government and church institutions. As a matter of fact the press was equated to military production. The free word became like a bullet or even a bomb.
The book is a quintessence of human thought, and it is so seductive to have unlimited monopoly for this thought. For the acceptable purposes “The index of the forbidden books“ which officially left in Rome in 1559 and stopped the existence even in 1966 was created. The first attempts of preliminary censorship appeared literally in several years after the invention of printing. Printing “plague“ (expression of churchmen) began to extend in high gear across all Europe.
And here, at last, the printing boom came to Russia. The first printing yard appeared in Moscow in 1553 under Ivan the Terrible`s decree. But this printing house existed not for long, and in 1563 the new printing house was founded, it was headed by Ivan Fyodorov. It with the assistant Pyotr Mstislavts began to print on April 19, 1563 the book “Apostle“ which safely was published on March 1, 1564. This date is considered day of the edition of the first Russian of precisely dated printing book.
Ivan Fyodorov`s priority as first printer is sometimes called into question. However it is rather possible to call the books published earlier the printed coarse sheets of paper. Words of the word on them were printed, without separating from each other, thickness of letters was different, lines uneven. And only in skillful hands of Ivan Fyodorov who applied inquisitive mind and education, the book took the true form and by right can be called a printing work of art.
With extensive distribution of books gradually there were also problems with copyright. The first law protecting the rights of authors was adopted in 1710 in England. After this important event there passed more than 170 years before in 1886 in Bern meeting of publishers of the different countries of the world who signed the International convention on protection of literary works took place. Russia issued the similar law in 1830. In 1952 in Geneva the World convention on copyright and a copyright symbol © was adopted. And in 2010 under the auspices of UNESCO “The world anti-piracy observatory“ which accumulated all data and materials for fight against piracy in the sphere of copyright was created.
In the world there passes the set of versatile book fairs. Very first organized in the 17th century in Leipzig. The largest book fair is carried out in Frankfurt am Main since 1949. In Russia the large and oldest book fair passes since 1977 in Moscow. The specialized fair devoted to children`s literature is held annually since 1964 in Bologna (by the way, the International day of the children`s book is celebrated on April 2).
And on “snack“ several interesting facts from life of books. The largest bookstore is located in New - York; the most popular writer in the world - Agatha Christie; the most prolific writer - Lope de Vega; the oldest bookstore works since 1732 in Lisbon; the most sold book (apart from the Bible) - “Guinness Book of Records“.
It is considered that the e-book and the Internet will force out the paper book. Very doubtfully. True admirers of books prefer a paper format because the book is not only a well of information, but a work of art. It is believed that the book will never die! Fans of books, we congratulate you congratulations!
the Book - the best gift!