Rus Articles Journal

Why the Western army did not come to the rescue of the general Yudenich? Part 1

26 of August, 1919 in Riga, the capital proclaimed already almost a year ago (on November 18, 1918) the sovereign Republic of Latvia, working meeting with the main question of the agenda took place: joint autumn approach to the Soviet Russia. by

organized it at the initiative of British, but there were at it representatives of all interested parties - Severo - the Western army of the general Yudenich, the Western voluntary army of the colonel Bermondt - Avalova, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. According to the plan developed at meeting, Bermondt - Avalov had to begin promotion of the parts to Dvinsk (nowadays Daugavpils) that through Velikiye Luki to come to Bologoye and to cut off the Nikolaev railroad, having deprived of the opponent of an opportunity to throw under Petrograd reserves from the center of Russia.

Initially approach was planned for September 15. However, as it usually also happens, suddenly arose one, other unforeseen circumstance and earlier planned date had to be transferred to later term. But on October 6 parts of the Western voluntary army everything are began promotion from Mitava (nowadays Jelgava) where they were deployed, towards Dvinsk.

Everything went according to the plan. As suddenly, just next day, avalovets turned almost by 180 degrees and went to approach … At all not to the Soviet Russia. And on the capital of sovereign Latvia - Riga.

And approach was so prompt and successful that already by the end of the next day the advanced parts of the Western voluntary army occupied the western, left-bank suburbs of the Latvian capital.

What happened why the vector of approach exchanged it radically? Most likely, here did not do without “the German hand“. In order that to understand it, it is necessary slightly - to turn off slightly a history tape back and to remember that else before the end of World War I the territory of Latvia was completely occupied with parts 8 - y the German army.

But … War everything is ended. In Compiegne the truce is concluded. Latvia declared the sovereignty and created the government which was headed by Karlis Ulmanis. And the Soviet Russia, having unilaterally denounced Brest - the Lithuanian peace treaty, began the approach in Baltic who, in fact, had nobody to resist and there is nothing. Latvia still practically had no armed forces, and fighting capacity of the fact that all - was available, was not at that level to speak about the organized resistance of Red Army.

In the created situation Ulmanis`s government had no other exit how to rely on forces which had almost near at hand 8 - y the German army with which command, in the person of Augustus Vinninga, the contract that Latvia employs the German volunteers and that from them who will serve not less than 4 in the Latvian parts was signed on December 29, 1918 - x weeks, promises not only nationality of the new Baltic state, but also - that is more important … Allotments!

The Latvian government, by the way, did not execute the promise. But who could know about it at the very beginning of 1919? Therefore the former soldiers and officers 8 - y armies which in Germany did not expect anything good except post-war unemployment and poverty, in hope for the better lot and the Latvian earth began to register in the Latvian voluntary parts from which “The iron division“ and “The German legion“ were created. These parts also made that main frame which for (and often and instead of) Latvians was at war for their freedom. More than 4 - x weeks. Much more!

And here Versailles. Under the terms of which Germany undertook to disengage the troops from Baltic since that became already a zone of interests of winners.

But if to leave Latvia, then not to see the promised zemlitsa! And all voluntary German parts amicable 40 - a thousand column flow in the Western voluntary army. That is from 50 - 52 thousand bayonets which were under supervision of Avalov at the beginning of October, 1919 nearly 4/5 were... Germans! Which, in - the first, was not a reason to leave Latvia, from the potential allotments, somewhere under unknown to them Bologoye. And in - the second, at least, their officers perfectly understood that take Yudenich Peter, positions of British in Baltic will repeatedly amplify. And whether then, especially, there will be at the sovereign Latvian government though some desire to keep the promises once given to Germans?

And who knows whether the advanced German parts of the Western voluntary army provoked fights of local value with Latvians as a result of which Avalov did not leave neither to Dvinsku, nor to the Nikolaev railroad, and it appeared near Riga.