Rus Articles Journal

How the Livonsky award owned, owned the Bausky lock, and then took and lost it?

Are considered to be that construction of the Bausky lock ended in 1451. As result, on the small spit in the place of merge of two rivers - Memele and Musa - there was a structure in the plan reminding the wrong quadrangle long 56 and 31 meter wide. the Lock was built by

taking into account a land relief. Thickness of its northern wall which was close approaching the high steep dolomitic coast of Memele was minimum and made … Only - 1,66 m. According to builders, bigger it was also not required. High dolomitic break. Natural water barrier. All this, combined, made almost impossible use of stenobitny mechanisms on this direction of defense of the lock.

And here other walls needed to be strengthened properly. Thickness in 3,6 m “properly“, most likely, corresponded to criterion.

From South side the spit on which there was a lock is washed by river waters Musa. From northern - Memele. In the West they merge together to give the birth to the third large river of Semigaliya - the Lielupe. Respectively, the most convenient approach to the lock - from its East side. Therefore also the main entrance to the lock was arranged from the East. In the wall leaving to foundation of the spit.

But what is convenient to defenders should not be also convenient also to the enemy. To salt to it, to the adversary, to the maximum - from East side adjoined the lock forburg. The prelock surrounded with a timbered paling. In addition, gate were protected by a dry ditch with the drawbridge thrown through it. Which was lifted, if something happens, and - hi. Get over through a ditch itself, as you wish. Without bridges different there and other help from defenders of the lock.

Well and as you will get over - to rejoice still early. Gate - here they. Only are locked. From within. And outside … At the left - on the right gate are clamped by two semicircular four-storeyed (!) towers of different diameters. Hugo - east and, respectively, North - east.

Hugo - east had a proper name - Kalna sargs (The guard of the mountain). And justified the name. Was the highest - nearly 22 meters, and powerful among all towers of the lock. With a diameter of 15,75 meters thickness of its walls made 3,6 m of Severo - east tower was less. But too - four-storeyed. Plus a cellar which the underpass connected to the similar room of the Guard of the mountain. Respectively, in case of need the staff of garrison could be thrown easily from one tower in another.

Besides the accounting of features of the surrounding district, the lock had peculiar, quite original planning. Only three towers from five were established according to the traditional scheme - on corners of fortifications. Besides two towers protecting gate angular was also massive, square North - the western tower intended as for defense of the lock from Memele`s river and for support the flanking fire North - east little sister. That it could carry out this task, builders nominated her a little to the North, having made, thus, the western wall of the lock is a little longer, than east. Therefore also the quadrangle turned out at them wrong.

Two remained towers of the lock were established in the middle pryaset. Small square - in the middle of the southern wall. Square, but it is more also with the rounded corners - in the center western. Between the last and - the western tower gate were North small, obviously playing a supporting role.

Here so or approximately the Bausky lock when in 1451 the object finished by construction was transferred to the customer - to Livonsky to an award so looked. Which accepted it in operation and began to use for designated purpose.

First of all, as the strengthening protecting the southern borders of an award and controlling a way from Lithuania to Riga. But not only. Besides voyenno - strategic function, the lock played an important role as an administrative center of the district. Here the residence of a fogt, the chief medal manager, financier and judge in the territory entrusted to it was placed.

Since 1451 - go for 1559 - y year in the Bausky lock there lived award fogta. Why till 1559 - go? Business is in that, on January 17, 1558 - go years Livonsky war began. Also there was it for an award not in the best way. The Russian troops inflicted over knights one defeat behind another.

That though somehow to save situation, on August 31, 1559 the Lebanese landmeyster Gotkhard Ketler signed with the Lithuanian grand duke and the Polish king Sigismund II the special agreement under which the earth of the Livonsky award passed “under a kliyentela and a patronage“ Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Of course, not just like that passed. For continuation of fight of the Award against Russia, in its order it was promised to provide army. And that the Lebanese landmeyster if something happens did not refuse those arrangements, he undertook the corresponding obligation: to transfer to the Grand Lithuanian duchy several border areas. And fortresses. Temporarily, of course. As pledge.

Executing the agreement, in December of the same year the last Bausky fogt - Heinrich von Galen - told the lock to the deputy of the grand duke Lithuanian and the king Polish. However, Heinrich that he - the last, did not even guess. As well as its chief director, it was convinced that all this nonsense - a temporary phenomenon. And it will return. Will surely return under protection of walls of the Bausky lock!

But … not on the cards. On August 2 the following, 1560, Heinrich von Galen will be killed in battle at Ermes. Together with it 260 more knights will die. The last hope of Livonia - Philipp von Boll landmarshat - will be taken prisoner. And together with the last hope also Livonia will die. In 1561, after signing of the Vilensky union, there will be no Livonsky award.

On part of its lands Kurlyandskoye and Semigalskoye`s duchy will be formed. As on November 28 the union was signed by the same persons that concluded the agreement two years before, probably, there is nothing surprising that the last landmeyster of the Livonsky award - Gotkhard Ketler became the first Kurlyandsky and the Semigalsky duke.

At the end of 1562 Bausky fortress was transferred to the ducal possession. On it, actually, the Lebanese component in the history of the lock also came to the end …