Rus Articles Journal

How Romans conquered Britain? 6. The lock of the Maiden of

In language of Britons “mai - dun“ - the big hill. It is really rather big, this biggest ancient settlement of the Iron Age in Britain and one of the biggest in Europe, nineteen hectares, however. Then already saxophones modified the name of the hill a little so now it sounds as modern English “Maiden“ - “Maiden“. Who there the lock tried to build

- not really clear, it seems, Normans, but traces any did not remain. Fragile some lock was. But the base of the Roman temple remained, after a gain Romans constructed it. There was in the second half of the 1st century rather big Roman settlement, but then he was abandoned - nearby Durnovernum (Dorchester) began to develop violently, and inhabitants got over there.

Pioneer settlements on the hill appeared about 4000 B.C. when also Britons in Britain were not. But it so, then people left top of the hill, and some time it stood empty.

About about 600 AD already Britons built the first ancient settlement on Big Holm. First it occupied only part of the territory, but in the next 150 years the ancient settlement extended, and to 450 AD all huge flat top was built up. The hill was cultivated, around it terraces are equipped, they more - less still remained.

Among other things, Mai Dong was the large center of ironworks production. Ore was brought not only from the next vicinities, but also from far away, nearly from Wales.

Here, so in an early autumn 44 - go On the Second of August the legion headed by future emperor Tit Flavy Vespasian to this ancient settlement of durotrig also left.

It is not really clear that there really happened. Historians put forward different versions - from a siege and firing from ballistas with the subsequent capitulation, before the cruel storm which ended with slaughter of civilians. Near the hill two cemeteries, on which the people who obviously died violent death are buried, were found one person is even punched by an arrow from a ballista. On one of cemeteries - about fifty dead men, at all are chopped off the heads. During lifetime? Posthumously? It is unclear.

On the other hand - all burials slightly more than sixty. Does not pull on cruel battle, and on mass beating - especially. Perhaps not everything remained? Not everything is found? Excavation and researches is still conducted, perhaps, sometime scientists will manage to find out circumstances of falling of a fort.

Anyway, Romans captured the Lock of the Maiden. Took and were taken on the East, by the camp in a bend of Stour, on wintering. Garrisons were left in the ancient settlement on Big Holm, in Eggerdona, Hod Hille, Spettisberi, perhaps, still somewhere. It seems as dispersion of forces, but all these forts not so far are from the main base and can count on the help if something happens.

However, it was not required, durotrig if also not absolutely laid down arms, then were demoralized by order.

Before reached that Vespasian was winded to Rome to participate in celebrations on the occasion of a gain of Britain, to receive the awards put to it and just to visit a family. Was not afraid to leave the troops entrusted to it on the deputy. And who was to stands - latiklaviy the II Avgustova - it is unknown, who knows, some twenty-year-old senatorial sonny.

In the spring 45 - go the Second Spanish moved further on the West. Clear business, in the main camp the garrison, on Holm Devy, in some other taken forts was left. Possibly, there arrived from the continent also some reinforcements, but, seemingly, at this stage Vespasian`s army was already not especially big, five thousand - an incomplete legion plus allies.

Romans occupied one ancient settlement of durotrig behind another. Kedberi, Ham Hill, Ueddon Hill, Hemberi. Real traces of battle were found on Ham Hill probably and Hemberi gave up not at once. The others were, seemingly, captured without fight.

In the summer 45 - go the legion reached Ekzeter. At durotrig was enough there - the decent settlement, Romans began to prepare for a siege. It is unlikely there was a storm or some else active actions. Britons sat some time in the besieged ancient settlement and gave up.

On it the II Avgustov`s campaign also ended. Of Britain Romans did not go to “tail“ yet. Durotrig were subordinated, lands dumnoniyev lay further, they ten remained as early as years are independent.

In the fall 45 - go Tit Flavy Vespasian handed over On the Second of August to the new commander, and itself returned to Rome. The three-year term which it should serve as the legate ended. The legion was distributed on garrisons and some time was used as intimidation in case suddenly durotrig would conceive to lift revolt. But is not present, everything was quiet in these regions.

In general, the II legion for these two years won rather extensive territory. But if there were serious battles, then one - two is, no more, and is not proved. Possibly, Svetony counted each small skirmish and everyone, even without fight the taken fort that it turned out thirty. One cannot say that durotrig really fought for independence. And it was clear that against Rome to them not to stand, at least, alone.

And what other legions were engaged at this time in?

Romans slowly extended the influence in Britain and military presence - too. However, meanwhile, generally on lands of those tribes whose reksa already swore to the emperor.

The IX Spanish went to the North and equipped the main camp in Longtorp, near Peterborough. One of divisions of a legion promoted further away, to Newton - on - Trent, near present Lincoln. That is the legion settled down partially on lands of itsen, partially - koritan.

The XIV Twins reached Begendon (almost to Gloucester), having confirmed thereby Bodvok`s claims, Rex faithful Rome northern dobunniyev. Then the legion turned on the North and was proved in Mandusedduma, between present Birmingham and Leicester. On border of territories of the katuvellaun subdued by force of arms and rebellious so far kornoviyev.

The XX Valeriyev Pobedonosny remained in Kamulodunum`s vicinities, the capitals of the Roman Britain.

Such here situation for the end 40 - x years of our era. Literally in two years Romans subordinated to themselves the most part of present England.

But on it business did not come to an end.