Rus Articles Journal

From where in the Bausky lock diamond a rustic?

In 1561 under blows of the Russian troops finally collapsed and the Livonsky award went somewhere to the area of historical legends. But! Nature abhors a vacuum.

Here also decided to create Sigismund II and the last Lebanese landmaster combining positions of the grand duke Lithuanian and the king Polish Gotkhard Ketler on part of lands of the Livonsky award Kurlyandskoye and Semigalskoye`s duchy.

Well and that to the newly-baked duke there was happiness, it litovsko - Polish syuzeren allocated the new vassal with different property. So at the end of 1562 the founder of a ducal dynasty Ketlerov caught the Bausky lock in property. And almost at once began to use actively it in the activity for the benefit and advantage of all Kurland and Semigaliya. Already the second Kurlyandsky landtag in 1568 passed in Bausky fortress.

It would seem - live and rejoice. So not. Did not rejoice to the first kurlyandsky duke. Did not rejoice in any way. Sverbila it also did not allow to sleep one not really joyful drizzle at night. Fortress supposedly it is fortress and is. From the point of view of safety, including personal, - very much even. And here from the point of view of prestige? On landtag the different people come. Comes, looks … Estimates. Whether and the ducal residence has to be such?

Znamo business - at all not such! Here that? Severity, practicality … And the gloss appropriate to the ducal residence where?! Ý - eh, to be developed to the duke …

Here only first - was in any way. Not to be developed. Still Livonsky war went. And how these Russians will overcome? And what? Built, built, and then? To the uncle, perhaps? The lock - not a handkerchief. You will not put in a pocket and with it you will not escape from Russians.

But all - both good, and bad - sometime and comes to an end. On January 15, 1582 in Zapolye the peace treaty was signed. Also war came to the end. And works in the Bausky lock began to boil.

Constructions of an old forburg partially took down, filled up a dry ditch, and on the released square erected the horseshoe adjoining east wall of the old lock from three two-storeyed buildings covered flat similar to a wooden ploughshare, a tile. On corners of an adjunction of the long parties of a horseshoe to the top there were two towers which in total with two-storeyed cases and an old wall of fortress formed an internal court yard of the ducal residence.

Builders were faced by a complex challenge. On the one hand - the border territory. On which who only does not reckon. Means, residents of the lock, and his defenders should ensure safety both. On the other hand is not just fortress. Ducal residence. It and has to have the corresponding look. That each passerby - perekhozhiya understood who here, in the lock, lives. Who in low …

Here big, ceremonial window openings with the glasses forming an original geometrical pattern in heavy lead frames also crashed into walls of new cases. But for safety on external walls they settled down only on the second floor and, in addition, amplified beautiful, but strong window lattices.

Lock facades, in imitation it is southern - to the German palaces, were decorated characteristic of the Renaissance and mannerism diamond rustiky - covered with plaster on the special technology (sgraffito) imitating a kvadrovy laying. The essence of this technology partially reveals its name. Sgraffiare - from Italian “to scratch“.

For a start on a wall it is applied several plaster coats differing from each other on color depending on the painting pigment mixed to a basis. As soon as the plastered surface dries and will grab, on it coal on a cliche applies drawing which then “protsarapyvatsya“. Plaster is scraped off by the special tool. In different places on different depth. To a concrete color layer. Total result the surface which convex and buried parts are painted differently turns out. And if everything is made correctly, then here it is the multi-color drawing for ages remaining on the plastered surface thanks to big firmness of the images received in equipment sgraffito.

Bauskoye sgraffito - the most well remained and the most magnificent all that let and fragmentary, but reached us in other Latvian locks and estates.

And besides - all matter of luck. Do not marry the younger daughter of the duke Ketler - Elizabeth - in marriage the notable grandee of the Teshinsky duchy, Gotkhard with the daughter, as one of components given, George Kurlyandsky did not go … The famous master of weapon affairs whose products are exposed in an exposition of the Polish museum “Cheshina“ also today. There is no first and second, unless the teshinsky matchmaker would think to send to the kurlyandsky relative as reciprocal gratitude the whole team of the plasterers who are skillfully owning equipment sgraffito?

But was. Both the first, and the second. Also the teshinsky matchmaker sent the whole crew. And as a result - here it. Diamond a rustic in equipment sgraffito. The best in Latvia. Remained despite everything.

The dead in 1587 Mr. Gotkhard did not happen to admire a fruit of hands of the builders and masters - plasterers of the teshinsky relative. And his ancestors were not really lucky with the lock.

Succeeded XVI - mu XVII - y the century gave for itself the whole train polsko - the Swedish wars during which the lock passed from one hands into others more than once. So when in 1660, after signing of the Olivsky peace treaty, the Swedish garrison left the lock, from kurlyandsky treasury it was necessary to spend for its restoration, neither more nor less, 12 thousand daller.

Only - only restored the ducal residence as … The 18th century - on a threshold. I … Northern war.

In 1701 again over towers of fortress the Swedish flag rose. Karl XII, having examined the lock, was with it very satisfied and considered suitable to use a construction “both for warehouses, and for a boundary post“. Of course, and did not prevent to strengthen fortress. For what on August 23 the same year the Swedish king signed in Frauenburge (present Saldus) the special order - “About appointment of every third peasant of Courland to works on building of strengthenings in Bausk“. Also work under the direction of the general - the major Karl Magnus Stewart began to boil.

Here it did not lead only to anything. By the end of August, 1705 the Russian army seized almost all Kurland. Having counted in this situation resistance senseless, the Swedish garrison laid down on September 14 arms.

But also the Russian parts stood in fortress not so long. In March of the next year, receding from Kurland, they blew up built the general - the major Stewart earth shaft, bastions and the southern part of the ducal residence.

And in 1710 - 11 in Bausk plague raged. A third of the city died out. For those who survived the lock became a source of sound construction material. Who secretly, who it is obvious, but Bauski`s inhabitants slowly began to sort the former ducal residence. So on the end of Northern war to Kurlyandsky to the duke there was no sense to come back to Bausku. It also did not return...

But despite all misadventures which fell down the lock, diamond a rustic remained. And at the fresh, updated Bauskoye`s colors sgraffito the restorations of the lock and its restoration which began not so long ago painted.