Rus Articles Journal

How Romans conquered Britain? 2. A crossing through La - Mansh of

the Roman legions intended for invasion into Britain gathered near Bononiya (Boulogne): Came from Strasbourg on the II of August; The XIV Twins - from Mainz; The XX Valeriyev Pobedonosny - from Cologne.

Avl Plavty served in Pannoniya. When it was caused from there, it took with itself(himself) the IX Spanish legion and couple of cohorts from the VIII Avgustov as a reserve.

Now allies.

Batava - the German tribe, lived in the territory of modern Holland. Excellent swimmers and equestrians, water barriers which for others could become an absolute obstacle forced without problems.

Thracians. Modern Thrace - the European part of Turkey, plus considerable part of Bulgaria, plus a piece of Greece. At the beginning of our era Thracians occupied a little big territory, but in the same place. The truth or not - as a part of the Thracian forwarding case there was female, well not a battalion, but some other separate division.

All right, the 43rd year, spring outside, weather good - is time to begin. Not here - that was!

Legions were in more recently - less quiet conditions, battles of the presents were not long ago. Were warmed. And here - welcome to unclear aggressive Britons. All right on foot. Across the Ocean full of unknown dangers.

Of course to cross La - Mansh (to be exact - the Strait of Dover) and to leave to the open ocean - things a little different. But legionaries of it did not want to understand. The terrible Ocean - and all!

Disorders began in the XX Pobedonosny, then were thrown on the others. Yet not mutiny, but open disobedience. And there and before mutiny nearby.

Then here troops were also addressed by the Narcissus. That he spoke to them there - nobody took shorthand, but the fighting spirit managed to lift. Speak, not so much the speech impressed legionaries how many pinned that the former slave as though on a holiday of the Saturnalia orders them.

But until the Narcissus from Rome reached Boulogne, some time passed.

Svetony considers as the delay reason an illness of Galby. Type, waited until future emperor recovers, and then together with it and went to a way. But...

Avla Plavtiya on age was more senior than the Galb, had more experience and merits. If he participated in the British expedition, then would be the commander-in-chief (the deputy nominal commander-in-chief Claudius), and Plavty would be active as the simple legate. Possibly, Galba ached seriously, remained on the continent, Avl Plavty accepted command instead of it.

The delay from - for disobedience of legions even helped Romans. Togodumn, Rex Katuvellaunov, whose investigation worked perfectly, knew, of course, estimated date of invasion. Brought together army, increased combat readiness - and what? The army, especially the army consisting of rebels long cannot be kept at combat readiness peak. Such army in general cannot be kept long. It was necessary to dismiss to Togodumn the army, then to collect again - all not that.

All right, went. In sense, floated. Middle or end of May.

In general, most of historians agree that Boulogne was the point of departure. Some, however, find logical to send the Roman army to swimming from the mouth of Rhine. As though Kaligula in vain built the beacon! And to Romans hunting there was four times a bigger distance to overcome on the awful Ocean when from rocks between Boulogne and Calais in good weather of the coast of Britain it is possible to see without telescope. Only, batava, near this mouth of Rhine and living and hydrophobia not suffering, could go such route. And that is not especially probable.

Now about the destination.

Here historians have many different options - from Tanet`s island to Chichester, all legions together or everyone separately.

David Young adduces nine airtight arguments proving that disembarkation could be made only in Richboro, near the mouth of the river Stour. I nine will not be, only a couple.

How Britons were strong and aggressive, chances to crush the Roman army in decisive battle at them was a little. Chances were others - if decisive battle was not at all. Britons would regularly terrorize Romans, fired from a distance, would destroy the broken-away groups, as required could take a wagon train. Really could organize real guerilyyu.

How it was possible to avoid decisive battle?

To Romans to land somewhere it is unclear where, the long time to roam across Britain, substituting flanks under guerrilla diversions, it is even better - to get stuck in some remote place and to begin to starve. Here if Romans were landed near Noviomagus (Chichester) and reached by some circles the right river bank Meduey, so it also was.

How to Romans to force Britons decisive battle to accept?

Here, just - to land in Richboro, covering the right flank at first with the sea, then the rivers, without delays, to move ahead, in the general unambiguous direction on Kamulodium - the capital of katuvellaun.

Some historians land legions in different places, then connect. Or set to everyone the separate task.

Romans of Britons won. But all Roman army, four legions plus allies won, and it was not really easy. The lonely legion wandering on the British roads (or to bogs) when still the army of katuvellaun is not crushed - a present to Togodumn. The IX Spanish was gone then from the ends somewhere in Piktaviya - in the novel and the movie, not in reality, of course. And here if who guessed to land at the beginning of 43 years on the II of August where - nibud near present Chichester, in lands allegedly friends - atrebat, it could happen and actually.

So disembarkation took place everything - in Richboro.

Of course what convenient there would not be the beach, at once to land four legions plus allies, plus the equipment - is unreal. But it - not a reason for crushing of forces. Romans, of course, equipped powerful fleet for a gain of Britain, but nevertheless not so powerful that for once to transport forty five thousand soldiers, with horses and all military property.

Landing operation took place in three stages. At first two legions with part of allied troops landed, they equipped the base and began to wait for the others. If even Britons managed to attack Romans at this time, at the last would get forces to hold the strengthened camp before approach of the second and third waves of a landing.

The road from Boulogne as it was already told, not distant. Within several days all army intended to invasion was transported on the Island.