How Romans conquered Britain? 1. Legions and legates of
Caesar went and returned. With a victory, but without gains. Augustus gathered, gathered and did not gather. Tibery somehow did not pay attention. Kaligula seriously prepared and was not in time. And Claudius - managed.
it is difficult to i to tell
what bonuses it brought it. Of course, the emperor received Triumph, it seems as was honored to be among great commanders. But Triumph - action single. To pass it is proud in the chariot across Rome - it pleasantly and what? Or perhaps and the truth - not really - that tight Claudius sitting on a throne managed to gain thus some authority and to hold on eleven more years until the beloved spouse poisoned with mushrooms.
The Roman beau monde belonged to a gain of Britain somehow indifferently. Chroniclers - in general pofigichesk. On the description of court intrigues they do not grudge many tons of the papyrus, and about the British expedition to tell properly - were not honored.
Well, it at them in blood, not the only case. If Caesar had no literary abilities and a creative itch what we would know about Gallic war now?
Fortunately, one of the legions which subdued Britain Tit Flavy Vespasian ordered. In twenty six years he became an emperor, and court historians were simply obliged to describe the feats made by Vespasian in young years. Here, however, there is the nuance - against nice acts of the Second Avgustov of a legion all other Roman army somehow palely looks. But what is, that is, and on this thanks.
Years through hundred fifty conceived to write to Dion Kassy Koktsean “The Roman history“ in eighty volumes. It in more detail on a gain of Britain stopped, than his predecessors, some sources nevertheless remained, probably. Dion Kassy cleared a lot of things, but confused something else more.
Historians modern agree with the following:
- business was in the 43rd year;
- four legions participated in the British expedition (by name);
- Aulus Plautius (Avl Plavty) ordered;
- the Roman fleet sailed from the continent;
- Romans landed somewhere in the south of the Island;
- there was a battle on the river Meduey, Romans won;
- On the second of August the legion besieged some forces of Britons on Holm Devy (Maiden Hill) and cruelly crushed them.
In all the rest historians each other contradict.
There would be a full mess, but the British officer David Henry Young scrupulously walked on nodal points and restored more - less adequate picture. Sir Young dug out too not all details, and in general his research is called “Vespasian and a gain Romans of the Southern England“, that is, besides, in general - a fighting way of the Second Avgustov. All the same - thanks a lot.
Somehow the preface dragged on. It is time already and to the history.
Seriously so still Guy Caesar Kaligula was going to conquer Britain. At it somewhere in vicinities of Boulogne the high beacon was constructed. So that the Roman fleet, following strictly to the north from a beacon, appeared just in the place intended for landing of troops. In total it was necessary to overcome kilometers sixty, and to coast of Britain - about thirty five, some part of a way (a third?) Romans could see this beacon at themselves behind the back.
Kaligula was killed at the beginning of 41, was not in time.
The new emperor decided to continue business of the nephew. In - the first, Claudius wanted to become famous for feats of arms. Well, not that just there was a wish - he counted that the loud victory will strengthen its power, will take in hand dissatisfied, will force to become silent rebels.
In - the second - richness of Britain. Silver mines in Spain were already almost exhausted, and British - still are not begun with sense. The list - how much was useful on the Island - impresses. Iron, lead, tin, copper, skins. Plus a little mastered agricultural grounds. In the long term - slaves. As a bonus - the same trained hunting dogs. All this was, of course, and so delivered to Rome, trade ways were knurled. The state received the customs duties. But by what to buy - just it is better to take. At once and there is a lot of.
In - the third is, however, already an occasion, but not the reason - Verika. To Rome regularly there arrived the offended British leaders with complaints to neighbors and requests for the help. Somewhere in 41 also Verika, the expelled Rex Atrebatov whose possession were taken by katuvellauna was declared. But it as it was already told - purely an occasion to give expeditions any legitimacy. Not invasion of an aggressor, but peacekeeping operation on legality restoration.
The Roman army intended for invasion totaled about forty five thousand people. Four legions (the regular number of everyone - about 5200) plus allies - batava and Thracians.
There is very confused question who what legion ordered and as in general functions were distributed. Such deal looks logical.
The commander-in-chief is Tibery Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanik. Clear business, purely nominally. Then the emperor in Britain everything is was sketched to have the right for Triumph, but and in real battles did not take part in the first stage of invasion.
The deputy commander-in-chief and the legate of the IX Spanish - Avl Plavty Silvanus. Really he also ordered all operation. Age - about 38 years.
On the II of August a legion - Tit Flavy Vespasian, it is absolute precisely. In 43 Vespasian there were 33 years.
The XX Valeriyev Pobedonosny - Tit Flavy Sabine, the elder brother of future emperor, 35 years.
The XIV Twins a legion - to them in general the boy ordered, twenty-three-year-old Gney Hodizy Geta.
Age of the Roman generals - not something outstanding. Young men from senatorial estate often entered army at eighteen-year age. And at once to a position a tribune - a latiklaviya, the first deputy of the legate. The same Geta managed to do some fighting already in Numidia, at the same time became famous for the fact that after his prayer the rain necessary to his soldiers what enemies strongly were frightened of dropped out and capitulated.
Among commanders Guy Sulpitsy Galba, also future emperor is mentioned. But somehow he in Britain did not make at all anything but when the army still was in Gallia - was ill. There are bases to assume that Galba was given assignment in forwarding army, but really in a gain did not participate.
There were also political commissioners - even two.
Gney Senty Saturnin, the former consul opposing to Claudius`s election on a kingdom. It seems as the emperor with him reconciled, but, just in case, sent away where far away. If in what participated, just in ceremonies.
Tibery Claudius Nartsiss, freedman, former slave. The closest adviser to the emperor. If not it, maybe, in general nothing would turn out.
Here all these misters gathered near Bononiya (Boulogne) and began to prepare for a crossing.