Browning Auto - 5. Why this autoloading gun call “the Great Gun“? A design of
“Great Gun“ - yes, quite so, from capital letter. And how still to call the gun which, without any changes was produced from 1902 to 1998 in lots? 96 years! And it in 20 - m a century, when technical progress including in the field of the weapon, went just with great strides!
Probably, this only gun included in the Guinness Book of Records for so long serial release. According to experts, the gun Browning Auto - 5 was one of the most successful and commercially successful designs of the smooth-bore gun in the history of firearms in general.
Developed by the ingenious American designer of small arms John Moses Browning (John Moses Browning) in a century (1898) before last it was used both as hunting and as the military weapon throughout everything 20 - go centuries. Also it is used till present. However, any more not as weapon, and as antiques, capital investments.
The main advantage of this gun - its full automaticity. The arrow should be loaded only cartridges (4 in shop and 1 in a trunk, that is why the gun is called “Auto - 5“ automatic five-charging), to aim and press descent. More than anything, all other actions: with great dispatch - the trigger mechanism the gun does extraction of a shot sleeve, giving of the boss in a cartridge chamber and a platoon. The gun is ready to a shot. And it in 1898 when military store rifles with a manual recharge were a technical novelty, and none of designers of the weapon even, probably, and thought of autoloading fowling pieces.
Externally the gun is similar to modern hunting semiautomatic devices and pump guns because “… there is nothing new under the sun“ (the Bible, “Ekklesiast`s Book“. 1:9). A trunk, subbarrelled shop, a receiver, a butt with a popupistoletny or direct neck. And the gun it even from a century before last. To tell more precisely, all modern classical guns - semiautomatic devices with subbarrelled shop are externally similar to Browning Auto - 5.
Automatic equipment of the gun is constructed on very interesting phenomenon - use of energy of return of a shot at the long course of a mobile trunk. I.e. all movements of parts of the mechanism depend on the movement of a trunk.
After a shot the trunk with a lock is rolled away back at the full length of the course, then the lock stops in back situation, and a trunk, already without lock, begins to move forward. The shot sleeve remains is clamped in a lock. After the trunk leaves forward on sufficient distance, she is released and jumps out outside through a window in a receiver. After arrival of a trunk to forward situation, a lock it is released and the next boss gives from subbarrelled shop, sending in addition it in a trunk. At the end of a lock setup the cartridge chamber is rigidly locked by a special larva.
That the trunk moved more evenly, Browning developed the system of braking providing the stable speed of kickback of a trunk for cartridges with a different powder and shot charge. This system consists of several frictional rings located between subbarrelled shop and a returnable spring of a trunk. Principle of work of a brake: the energy of return of the boss is higher, the trunk is braked stronger. Such system at regular greasing and adjustment ensures very reliable functioning of the weapon. It is enough to tell that still in Russia pre-revolutionary fifth Brownings are used. Safety lock - the button in the basis of a trigger bracket. The subbarrelled tubular shop is equipped through a window in day of a receiver. Capacity of shop - 4 boss, the fifth it is possible to load in a trunk.
Depending on time of release and modification, automatic guns of Browning could be equipped with trunks with an aim level or without it, with the fixed or replaceable dulny narrowings (checks). Caliber 12, 16, 20. Trunks were various length from 560 to 812 mm. One of police modifications of this gun was with a cartridge chamber on 7 cartridges and in principle Browning Auto - had to be called 8 (by quantity of the loaded cartridges - 7 in shop and 1 in a trunk). The wooden box could differ in a shape of a neck of a butt, quality of a tree, finishing, an engraving, etc. By the way, guns of the fifth model, even police officers and military, never became with a folding butt as in a butt the long tube with a spring is located.
And still interesting technical detail. On the left side the special rychazhok which closes giving of cartridges from shop is located. It allows to discharge quickly the weapon or to replace a cartridge in a trunk with another, say, with a shot shell instead of bullet or on the contrary.
And one more very interesting property of this gun: it has very comfortable, “dragged-out“ and weak return. Almost all energy which in the ordinary gun pushes a butt back in Auto - 5 is used for operation of the automatic mechanism.
All metal details of the gun were steel and milled. And it affected phenomenal reliability of the gun too. Subsequently these guns passed from the father to the son, from the son to the grandson, practically without losing (at due leaving) the consumer properties.
All during production it was let out more than 3 000 000 (three million!) automatic guns of Browning of the fifth model.