ROLE of the POLISH DIPLOMATS - ARMENIANS IN TURKISH - the POLISH RELATIONS of the FIRST QUARTER of the 17th CENTURY.
of G. P. PINGIRYAN
the Problem foreign policy the relation of the Ottoman Empire with the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe in XVI - The 17th centuries it is for the present poorly studied though interest in it considerably increased recently in the Turkish and Polish historical literature. Issue of several new works of the Turkish historians of F. R. Unat testifies to it. O. L. Barkana and Kemyal Beililli. It is even more similar editions in the Polish historical literature. B to Poland for the last three decades appeared publications of sources on this perspective, for example, such as A. Pshibosya and R. Zhelevsky`s book “Diplomats of old times, valuable “The catalog of documents Turkish“ 4 which were found in the Polish archives and storages of manuscripts by the turcologist 3. By Abrakhamovich and him are published.
At last, it should be noted left in 1966. total monographic work of the Polish historians “Diplomatic service of Poland in XVI - XVIII on“ and “History of the Polish diplomacy“ in which, however, activity of the Polish Armenians in a diplomatic field is not accented. There is only a fleeting mention of names of several diplomats - Armenians by consideration of activity of the Polish diplomatic service throughout XVI - 17th centuries. At the same time perfectly reasoned, based on numerous archival documents and narrative sources, extensive article of the prominent historian, orientalist - the turcologist Bogdan Baranovsky “Armenians on diplomatic service of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth“ 6 which was included then, as one of heads, into his monograph “Acquaintance to the East in Medieval Poland“ 7 is issued. Similar work concerning communications of Poland with the East in the 18th century is published by the orientalist Yang of Reykhmanom8. These researches B. Baranovsky, Ya. Reykhman, and also A. Zayonchkovsky are the first experience in business of studying of a role and the place of the Polish Armenians in communications of Poland with the East. The Armenian historians operate generally with those data which contain in these works of the Polish orientalists. Nowadays need to continue work begun with them, to add it with new documentary materials, mainly from unused the Polish scientists of archives of Lviv, the Cat, and also data of the Armenian sources ripened.
In the present article are mentioned some low-studied aspects of activity of the Polish Armenians - diplomats and merchants in implementation of political contacts of Turkey with Poland. In it on the basis of archival materials nature of the diplomatic missions in Turkey which are carried out by the Polish Armenians the II that important, at times a crucial role which was played by diplomats - Armenians in the rough, sated with poyenny alarms and collisions years of the first quarter of the 17th century is lit. especially in critical days of the conclusion in Istanbul in 1623 of the Hotinsky treatise about the world between Turkey and Ice-holes.
Sources demonstrate that the Polish diplomatic service in Turkey and Iran was substantially carried out in XVI - The 17th centuries the Polish Armenians who came to the office in royal office from the sphere of trade and having wide life experience and wide political and economic relations
in the east. In most cases it were polyglots. Knowledge of east languages, customs and customs of Turks, strong links to Armenians of Istanbul, Ankara, Adrianople, Bursa, Izmir and other cities, awareness in questions of east etiquette, ability to come into contacts with court circles and the sultan`s confidants by the vizier - all this was inherent in them which was carrying out diplomatic instructions in the Ottoman Empire and brought success them (sometimes very responsible) to missions.
Ukrainian historian I. Linpichenko, characterizing a public role of Armenians in the history of Hugo - the Western Russia, in particular, wrote: “Living conditions did of each Armenian of the real diplomat of de facto. Not surprisingly therefore that Armenians very often are also diplomats of de jure. Nobody better than Armenians knew customs and habits of Tatars, Turks and other east people with which they were daily pushed together by trade turnovers. To whom how not to Armenians, was to charge a touchy business of diplomatic negotiations with the most skillful diplomats of that time, people of the East when small violation of etiquette, the awkward phrase, violation empty, according to a pride shlyakhtich, formality could disturb right at the beginning diplomatic campaign in the east? Who, at last, from shlyakhtichy that time could brag of similar linguistic abilities what were possessed by each ordinary Armenian?... Therefore - though at the head of diplomatic missions on the East also stand ordinary shlyakhetno nee Poles, some notable magnate or the young member of an important shlyakhetsky surname beginning the diplomatic career, however the ambassador of de facto is the Armenian merchant consisting at it in a modest role of a dragoman“ 10
the role of the Slavic countries, including Poland and Ukraine, in the history of the Armenian settlements throughout all Middle Ages is Extremely big. The cities of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which hospitably sheltered the Armenian immigrants were actually the second homeland for them. That is why in the Armenian sources of that time - chronicles, memorable records of manuscripts about Poland and Ukraine with appreciation it is told as about “The Polish and Ukrainian house of Armenians“.
First quarter of XVII z. was time of economic and cultural blossoming of the Armenian settlements in Poland which were placed more than in fifty cities of the country, mainly on her Hugo - eastern frontiers, in the cities - the centers of trade with the East located on the ways of karavanny trade with Turkey and the Crimea. The most considerable settlements of Armenians were in Lviv (where the one sixth part of the population was made by Armenians) and boundary Kamyanets-Podilsky where they
made a third of residents. Trade with Turkey brought in huge incomes to the Armenian merchants of Poland what the data of registers of the duties paid by Armenians at Kamenetsky and Snyatinsky &ndash customs which are available at our disposal confirm; a so-called “chvarty penny“ for the rich caravans of goods brought from Turkey. Let`s specify, for example, that only in one 1616 the profit of the kamenetsky merchant Sefer Nuridznanovncha made 9. 420 gold thalers, and merchant Bagdasar Oganesozich - over 11 thousand.
Existed a number of major trading family companies of the Lviv Armenians which had the trade missions in Istanbul of N other cities of the Ottoman Empire. These so-called “trading houses“ Bernatovichy, Akopsovichy, Oganesovichy, Muratovichy, Varteresovichey and Serebkovichey showed interest not only in a trade environment, but also to voyenno - to a political and economic situation of the Ottoman Empire.
Active and enterprising, Armenian merchants did big risk for life karavanny business with Turkey: participation in the caravan which is going east was equivalent to participation in military expedition in those days. As elders of the Armenian community of Lviv in city magistrate, “our youth declared...
with 16 - 18 - ti got used to go years on merchant affairs to Turks and for the sea to east countries so they by a year, and sometimes more do not stay at home. On these trips at a caravan they often are endangered and practise in firing when they are attacked by hundreds of Tatars, oprishk and robbers, and they have to shoot back them“.
the Way of a trade caravan from Lviv to Istanbul took about a month. And all
zhev a current of year the Armenian merchants from Poland made the krkrupny cities of the Ottoman Empire where they perfectly accustomed on several trips to
, having found extensive communications. The Polish researcher L. Harevicheva wrote that “the Lviv Armenians had the big income and though they were not numerous, however the mobility misled idea of contemporaries of the number to such an extent that the traveler Detsiush declared: “Partim Polanian occupant Armeni (“Partially Armenians own Poland“)“ that was, certainly, exaggeration.
In Constantinople of constant embassy Poland had no and was limited to a positka in High Porto of embassies led by notable grandees from time to time. It were, it agrees to the data collected by us, embassies: the prince Gursky - in 1613, Targovsky - in 1614, Chudovsky and Koritsky`s royal komornnk - in 1618, the magnate Otvinovsky - in 1619, the prince Zbarazhsky - in 1622 - 1623 and the Lviv citizen, Armenian Khachatur Serebkovich (Serobyan) - in 1623, received from the king Signzmund III for successfully executed mission a title of the royal secretary.
At a similar situation special value was got by those data of political and military character which supplied royal office and the crown hetman Stanislav Konetspolsky at means of messengers. Armenians, for example, Stefan Serebkovich from Lviv, Minas Hacherovich from Kamyanets-Podilsky, etc. were them also.
On service of the hetman Stanislav Konetspolsky consisted Armenians Mark Sergiyovich, Ovannes Romashkovich and Ovannes Piotrovich. Relevancy of services of Mark Sergeyevich is confirmed by the charter of immunity issued by the hetman, an osvobozhdavsha I Mark Sergiyovich from payment of the customs duties during trips to Turkey.
This document which is stored in the Lviv historical archive, in particular, says: “Mark Sergeyovich`s house as improvised servant my, rendering essential services of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it has to be protected from a billeting of any guests for what I order to beat the coat of arms of shlyakhetskiya over doors of his house in Kamentsa and I warn that the offenses caused to it by someone for my personal I will esteem“ .
Ovannes Romashkovich was the famous diplomat of XVIIV. It served 30 years in royal office and was awarded a high title of the royal secretary. Romashkovich began the diplomatic career also in Istanbul as the representative hetman S. Konetspolsky. From the Turkish capital it sent the most various data on preparation by Ottomans of war against Poland. Its report on stay in the capital of the Ottoman Empire was submitted in royal office and remained up to now.
In acts of the Armenian magistrate Kamyanets-Podilsky the information and about other Armenian diplomat of that era Ovaines Piotrovich who calls himself “the servant of yasnovelmozhny mister voivode Saidomirsky, the hetman crown“, “carrying out the important orders of the mister very necessary for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth“ remained.
Documentary materials of archives of Ukraine report concrete data on the Armenians accompanying the called embassies to Istanbul as secretaries of embassies, translators - tolmachy, playing important, sometimes a crucial role in negotiations at the sultan yard. Them were at the beginning of XVIIV. Ivashko Warterisowitsch, Sefer Muratovich, Armenian Tomashiz Kamentsa, the Lviv resident Simon Warterisowitsch enjoying big confidence of the king Signzmund III who charged it especially responsible missions. In one of statements the Lviv Armenians, addressing Simon Warterisowitsch, spoke: “You are our elder, you should protect our rights, our religion and church Armenian, to you everything will pass, so