“Evenings on the farm near Dykanka“. Fantasy or realism, humour or lyrics? Already wrote
Ya about fantastic folklore plots which were so skillfully used by Gogol in “Evenings on the farm near Dykanka“. But originality of the book is in what fantastic in it is deeply implanted in real Ukrainian life - so that removes “Evenings …“ for a framework of actually fantastic genre.
About it was well written by V. Belinsky: “It is national - fantastic so miraculously merges in art reproduction with national - valid that both of these elements form themselves concrete poetic reality in which you do not learn in any way that in it byl and that the fairy tale, but necessarily you accept everything for byl“ .
Besides in “Evenings...“ we can meet stories where there is nothing fantastic at all. So there are false fears of “a red svitka“ in “A Sorochynsk fair“. And in the story “Ivan Fedorovich Shponka and His Aunt“ the only phantasmagoria is Shponka`s dream before a marriage (we will meet this brilliant crazy absurdity at Gogol still more than once - to take, at least, “The madman`s notes“).
“Ivan Fedorovich Shponka and his aunt“:
“… That suddenly he jumped on one leg, and the aunt, looking at him, spoke pompously: “Yes, you have to jump because you are now a married person“. It to it - but the aunt any more not the aunt, and a belltower. Also feels that someone drags it a rope on a belltower. “Who it drags me?“ - Ivan Fedorovich plaintively spoke. “It I, your wife, drag you because you are a bell“. - “No, I am not a bell, I am Ivan Fedorovich!“ - he shouted. “Yes, you are a bell“, - said, passing by, the colonel P *** an infantry regiment. That suddenly dreamed it that the wife at all not the person, and some woolen matter; that it in Mogilev comes to a bench to the merchant. “What you will order to matter? - the merchant speaks. - You take wives, it is the most fashionable matter! very sound! from it all is sewed now to themselves by frock coats“. The merchant measures and cuts the wife. Ivan Fedorovich a beret under a mouse, goes to the kike, the tailor. “No, - the kike says, is bad matter! From it nobody sews to himself a frock coat...“
Of course, the first that makes impression on the reader “Evenings...“, it is full-blooded brilliant cheerful humour of the writer. It would seem, already unlimited number of times you re-read this book, and all the same - where - nibud and you will sprinkle with laughter.
“A Sorochynsk fair“:
“My God my God, for what such misfortune on us guilty! and there is a lot of any rubbish on light, and you also shanks produced!“
“-... As soon as night, the dead person also trudges. Will sit down astride a pipe, damned, and holds dumpling in teeth. In the afternoon all pokoyno, and to hearing is not present about it; but only will begin to primerkat - have a look at a roof, already and saddled, the dog son, a pipe.
- And dumpling in teeth?
- And dumpling in teeth“.
“Night before Christmas“:
“- you have a poker, it is visible, iron! - the weaver told after small silence, scratching a back. - My shank bought last year at a fair a poker, gave pivkopa, - that nothing... not painfully“.
However already the critic V. Belinsky was indignant that many see in Gogol`s works only humour and do not notice sad and lyrical notes. He wrote: “The comedy is not the dominating and outweighing elements of his talent at all. His talent consists in surprising fidelity of the image of life in it imperceptibly - various manifestations“.
N. Gogol “An author`s confession“:
“The reason of that of cheerfulness which was noticed in the first compositions my, seemed in the press consisted in some sincere requirement. On me found melancholy attacks, me the most inexplicable which came, maybe, from my disease state. To entertain itself, I thought out to myself all ridiculous that could only invent. Invented entirely ridiculous faces and characters, delivered them mentally in the most humorous situations, without caring at all for that why it for what and to whom from this there will be what advantage. Youth during which no questions occur pushed“.
Having left a poetic genre, Gogol transferred poetry to prose.
in “Evenings...“ we can see the well-known “lyrical sketches and retreats“ of Gogol. Not all read “Fearful vengeance“, but all heard lines: “Dnieper at a calm weather when it is free is wonderful and smoothly rushes through the woods and mountains high waters.... The rare bird will reach the middle of Dnieper“ .
Look how the ending of “A Sorochynsk fair“ - one of the most cheerful stories of the writer sadly sounds:
“A bow died, weakening and losing not clear sounds in emptiness of air. Stamping, something similar to grumble of the remote sea was still heard somewhere, and all became empty and deafly soon. whether
so and pleasure, the beautiful and changeable guest, departs from us, and in vain lonely sound thinks to express fun? In own echo he hears already grief and the desert and dimo vnemlt to it. Whether so quick the friend of rough and free youth, one by one, one by one, are lost all over the world and leave, at last, one ancient brother them? Boringly left! Both it becomes heavy and sad to heart, and there is nothing to help it“ .
And in the most terrible stories of Gogol - “Evening on the eve of Ivan Kupala“ and “Fearful vengeance“ - comical is practically absent.
“Evening on the eve of Ivan Kupala“:
“Petro Was dumbfounded. A little, to cut off for no reason at all to the person the head moreover and to the innocent child!
... Chervonets, expensive stones, in chests, in coppers, were piled by heaps under that place where they stood. His eyes lit up... mind grew dull... As mad, it grasped a knife, and innocent blood scattered to it in eyes... The devil laughter rang out from all directions. Ugly monsters packs jumped before it. The witch, having seized hands the beheaded corpse as a wolf, sucked from it blood... All went around in his head! Having collected all forces, he took to the heels. All became covered before it by red color. Trees, all in blood, appear, burned and groaned. The sky, having burned, shivered... Fiery spots that lightnings, seemed in his eyes“.
Probably, to Gogol before the publication “Evenings...“ pointed out “floridity“ of a syllable and an excessive abstractness of separate fragments more than once. On draft records it is visible how the writer strongly reduced the initial texts.
Cf. fragments from “A Sorochynsk fair“ in early edition:
“The tired sun left from the world, and is quiet propylav the midday and morning, day both it is captivating, and is sad, and rumyanitsya brightly as cheeks of the fine victim of a relentless illness a solemn minute of its flying away on the sky“ ;
“The tired sun left from the world, is quiet propylav the midday and morning; and the dying-away day rumyanitsya captivatingly and brightly“ .
Not only lyrical digressions, but also the whole scenes were reduced. So from the first version of “The gone diploma“ details of travel of Kozak from a scorching heat were cleaned and the piece was rejected (in my opinion very successful) (after words “With devils grandfather and to think of the fuss forgot“ ):
“-Only once somehow happened - there was it tipsy. There were many guests, varenukh and food and it is more of that. The word behind the word, the grandfather also gave a hint about the diploma as there was it was gone, and the beginnings already was to tell... Only lo and behold accidentally up on a regiment - pots all ponaduvat cheeks, goggled also such began it to build mugs that the frost podrat the grandfather on skin and, were not interrogated it any more to terminate. For other day the grandfather everything told a bottom on a confession and consecrated all corners and back streets of a hut. Then was not afraid to speak about it counter and cross any more. Though, it is visible, already in punishment that he did not make it before, to the woman exactly in a year, in that time, such miracle priluchitsya that it is danced to legs and only. What will be accepted to, legs start the and here and pulls to be let in a squating position“ .
Changes were done not only by Gogol, but also editors. First of all, it belongs to the story “Evening on the eve of Ivan Kupala“ which the first of the collection “Evenings...“ was issued in February - March, 1831 in the Domestic Notes magazine. The editor of the magazine P. Svinyin so strongly cleared the story of “popular speech“ that Gogol in the following edition not only returned the initial text, but also did not fail to insert into the beginning of the story a passage towards the editor:
“Spit on the head to the one who printed it! gaps, suchy Russian. Whether so I spoke? Shcho that to a vzha, a yak at whom lines - ma klepk in the head! Listen, I will tell you it now“ .
But there was one more problem. About it already another time...