How successfully to grow up tomatoes?
the Territory of Russia is located bigger part in climatic zones which are not always favorable for cultivation of agricultural production. In turn, the considerable part of the specified territories belongs to a so-called zone of “risky agriculture“. In these areas the bezmorozny period often does not exceed 60 - 70 days that complicates conducting agricultural works. cultivation of production of agricultural purpose does not guarantee to
In such environment receiving a harvest. Therefore tomatoes grow up in the rassadny way which allows to have early and more big crop. It is about cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse where it is possible to receive with guarantee more big crop, than in an open ground. Work with the greenhouse is more difficult, but allows to protect plants from early and late frosts.
To grow up high-quality seedling not easy, but the Russian gardeners learned to do it competently. Because not only the size of a harvest, but also the beginning of maturing of fruits depends on quality of seedling. Here it is necessary to know features of plants and to manage to provide them to all necessary during this period of life.
Optimum terms of crops of seeds of a tomato fall on seedling on the first week of April. Some gardeners before crops process seeds in potassium permanganate solution. Others check previously seeds on specific density in 3% solution of table salt (30 g for 1 liter of water): the seeds which settled on a ware bottom should be washed out in flowing water and to dry, and emerged to remove.
The seedling, ready to disembarkation, has to have the created first brush of buds. For this purpose 45-50 days from the moment of emergence of shoots are required. But the seedling and smaller age - is not worse on quality at all. At the end of May, the beginning of June the seedling is landed in soil and if it did not get warm up to the necessary depth, it will interfere with growth of plants.
In Yakutia, for example, removed the top soil in the greenhouse earlier, replacing it with manure which pereprevy, created the necessary microclimate, and from above manure did ridges for cultivation of tomatoes. This way allows to grow up tomatoes in the conditions of permafrost, but reduces productivity due to “overgrowth“ of plants.
I land seedling in holes depth on a shovel bayonet, previously having filled last year`s leaves of trees, small branches on a hole bottom. Or straw, when there is no vegetable garbage. Such laying protects plant roots from below and sideways from cold soil, and then, rotting through, gives additional food.
I give preference in the greenhouse, to large-fruited grades of tomatoes, growing up them on a lane, forming a bush in one stalk (seldom two) therefore landing turns out a little zagushchenny. I place seedling with distance between ranks in 70 cm. Distance between plants among 30-40 cm. Watering of plants I make the first 2 weeks in a hole, then among I clean walls of holes between plants. Plants among turn out in deepening in which watering is made two more weeks.
In a month I begin to row up the earth from row-spacings to plants, at the same time deepening in which made watering, it is filled up, plants appear on “hill“. And in row-spacings deepenings for watering where I pour water are formed, watering the greenhouse. At this time there are additional roots and to loosen the earth around plants already quite difficult.
Tomatoes of large-fruited grades have the average mass of a fruit to 200 g. And therefore all fruit brushes should be tied up to a lane that under weight of fruits they were not pressed. To receive a fruit, larger by the size, on a brush leave one, more rare two well tied fruits. Thus, on one plant there are about 4-5 brushes with tomatoes.
Growing up tomatoes on a lane in one stalk, it is possible to receive to 4 kg of fruits from one bush. It is a good harvest, considering that on square meter several plants grow. And having occupied a half of the greenhouse with large-fruited grades of tomatoes of salad appointment, the second half can be given for cultivation of tomatoes for conservation and test of new grades.
In the middle of August it is necessary to prishchipnut a plant over the last tied brush and to remove all flowers. The fruits which remained after the main harvesting will ripen to frosts.
Some gardeners lose a harvest of tomatoes from - for a fitoftoroz who strikes adult plants. On the lower party of leaves brown spots with a white raid, on stalks - the brown extended spots without raid, on fruits - brown decay are formed.
The phytophthora strikes only green fruits of tomatoes therefore having twice lost considerable part of a harvest whenever possible, I try to gather hardly mature, beginning to redden tomatoes. Preservation of the struck fruits of tomatoes by method of thermal treatment ineffectively therefore the main attention should be paid to prevention of a fitoftoroz. For this purpose it is possible to process the landed seedling cupriferous preparations, for example, bordeaux liquid. And till fall to destroy all vegetable remains of tomatoes and whenever possible to process the greenhouse the same bordeaux liquid.
High productivity of tomatoes depends not only on an agrotechnology and correctly chosen grades for cultivation in the greenhouse. Here the special spirit of the gardener, his interest in the grown-up plants and therefore care of tomatoes takes a lot of time is necessary. For example, to receive tomato weighing one kilogram, it should be grown up, consciously paying to this fruit more attention.