What were bribery and corruption in the conditions of new economic policy in the USSR?
the New Economic Policy (NEP) succeeded military communism. Officially the New Economic Policy it was accepted in March, 1921 at the X congress of RCP(b) and was considered as a temporary measure which will allow to create favorable economic conditions for creation of socialism in the young Soviet state.
the Maintenance of the New Economic Policy
One of the main measures of the New Economic Policy consisted in replacement of a surplus-appropriation system prodnalogy in the village. This measure reduced approximately half amount of grain which was withdrawn from peasants annually after harvesting. Authors of the New Economic Policy supposed use of the market relations, various forms of ownership, attraction of the foreign capital for restoration of a national economy and carrying out monetary reform.
Entering new economic policy, the Russian government pursued several important aims. The political goal consisted in strengthening of a social base of the Soviet power which heads of the state saw in a unification of workers and peasants. The economic target - to stop ruin, to recover from deeply crisis and to begin restoration of economy of the country. The social purpose consisted in creation of conditions for creation of socialist society. Besides, authors of the New Economic Policy hoped to restore the normal relations with other countries and thus to break through the international isolation.
Acts of the New Economic Policywas entered by
in the middle of 1921 in the country an allowing order for opening of trade enterprises. By the authorities it was headed for cancellation of monopolies of the state for different types of goods, production and services. The small industrial enterprises could be registered according to the simplified program, at them increase in norm of hired workers from 10 to 20 people was allowed. The small enterprises from state became (under certain conditions) private.
The state gave to people legal guarantees of a private property. In May, 1922. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (ARCEC) issued the decree “About the basic private property rights recognized by RSFSR, protected by its laws and protected by vessels of RSFSR“. At the end of the same year the Civil code of RSFSR took effect. In it is mute it was said that each Russian citizen had the right to organize the trade and industrial enterprises.
Since 1923 the USSR entered practice of the conclusion of contracts on concessions on which the foreign companies could use the state enterprises.
Bribery and corruption at the New Economic Policy
In 10 years of new economic policy the number of officials increased by one and a half times in comparison with 1922. In 1928 7 officials were the share of 1000 people. In the conditions of new economic policy the bribery and corruption changed and played a huge role in life of the Soviet society.
As one of main objectives of the New Economic Policy consisted in rise in agriculture, the eases given by the power led to emergence of a big layer of prosperous peasants. Here on them - that “zakuslivy“ officials also turned the look. Taxation by taxes of prosperous peasants was their new source of enrichment. For a good jackpot in own pocket they could exempt from taxation of the rich peasant, having written down it in poor people. And many used it as the bribe was less size of a tax, and the “charter of immunity“ “bought“ in such way helped the prosperous peasant to keep acquired and to increase the state from encroachments of tax inspectors.
Prosperous peasants were united in cooperatives. Gubkoma RCP(b) was taken by bribes from rich peasants in shape … a loan! Almost all provincial Communist Party organizations were debtors of country cooperatives. I. V. Stalin called this dependence of party structures on rural producers kulatsko - a party smychka. In several years after the termination New Economic Policy it finished with this smychka in own way: fists were destroyed as a class (many decayed in the Soviet torture chambers), and the party was transformed to the structure convenient for “the leader of all people“.
For some reason there is an opinion that at Stalin corruption did not exist at all. It`s not true. She changed and “adapted“ to new conditions. The small bribery practically did not change. And large officials quickly thought that from - for bribes they can lose the post, the power and … the heads. Therefore they began to think of the service more much, without forgetting that the held post is a source of their prosperity and the power. Anybody of the official case had no confidence, what is the time they will stay on a post. It was good incentive to hit a jackpot more, so far you in power. There was a secret code: the bureaucratic worker chinopochitat the companions standing above him on a position, but talked imperious tone to subordinates and respected force, but not the law.
the Conclusionthe New Economic Policy was result of
recovery of the economy of the country on the basis of the new public relations. In the industry the leading role belonged to the state trusts, in the financial sphere the state and cooperative banks, in the agrarian sphere - the country farms united in cooperatives adjoined. The state partially passed to price control by means of economic methods. But lack of democratism in a pricing policy became a stumbling block and one of the reasons of the end of the New Economic Policy.
But for the period of the New Economic Policy emergence, formation and training of the new Soviet nomenclature with specific values was necessary. This layer had no respect for the law, but read force and the power. The held posts were used for strengthening of own situation and a personal profit.
Both tops, and bottoms of society accepted the existing power as norm only in such execution …