Mushrooms - babies. What it is possible to expect from them?Mushrooms - babies, microscopic mushrooms - a unique natural phenomenon. They are widespread everywhere: in the earth, water, air. But more often settle on the earth, on vegetable substrata. There are even mushrooms which are living on plastic and decomposing it. So it is possible to expect from these most mysterious beings on Earth? They will rescue or will ruin the person on the planet?
the biggest secret of microscopic mushrooms - extremely high energy of reproduction. Mushrooms can breed sexless and sexually. The first call imperfect, the second - perfect. Features of ways of reproduction and the structure of genitals is the basis for classification of mushrooms.
The mushrooms causing biodamages possess the highest energy of reproduction among all mushroom kingdom. For example, the mushrooms fermenting dairy products or participating in process of preparation of yeast dough.
Sukhospory mushrooms form millions dispute which are so small that the slightest whiff of a breeze rise by considerable height and are transferred to long distances.
One of species of the microscopic mushrooms living in manure of herbivores throws out disputes with huge acceleration. By estimates of scientists, it in 180 thousand times more acceleration of gravity. These disputes scatter with a speed about 25 m/s on distance to 2,5 meters. For dispute of 10 in size - 500 micrometers are enormous distances. One of parasitic fungi creates a peculiar stream of air, by means of which disputes are carried on distances to 10 cm
, Disputes get into cracks invisible to a human eye and a time in granite, metals, plastic materials.
Mushrooms - babies are capable to live in extreme conditions:
- disputes of mushrooms are steady against drying, they can keep viability in the dried-up state till 20 - 30 years;
- disputes of many mushrooms transfer a long time low temperatures;
- microscopic mushrooms live in conditions of the raised radiation and impurity harmful production wastes;
- also they survive in the conditions of a high pressure.
Special position in life of mushrooms is held by carbon. About 50 percent of solid of a mushroom are the share of carbon therefore it occupies the extreme importance in food of mushrooms. Some species of mushrooms are omnivorous and capable to acquire various connections, extracting themselves carbon from oil, tar, paraffin, kapron, rubber, pesticides. Practically there are no organic compounds which are not acquired by mushrooms.
Before the person, millions years ago, ants began to eat mushrooms. Ants - listoreza are even able to grow up them. Underground they part mushroom plantations, for this purpose bring pieces of leaves, crush them, creating a nutrient medium. Then eat mushroom threads.
People use microscopic mushrooms in many branches: food, pharmaceutical, tanning, textile, agricultural, for utilization of household waste.
For example, removal of wool from a skin was carried out in the millennia in the most primitive way: applied dog excrement and a pigeon dung to these purposes. The enzymes which are contained in them decomposed wool. This process was the dirtiest, labor-consuming and long. Now enzyme of a certain species of mushrooms performs such work within a day.
Also microscopic mushrooms use in the textile industry for removal of a shlikhta, only about 5 minutes are spent for this operation. Shlikhtovaniye - gluing a yarn krakhmalopodobny substances which at further processing have to be removed.
Lemon acid receive by means of a mold mushroom aspergillus Niger (a black mold). This mushroom is very toxic, and by production strict observance of technology is necessary.
Mold mushrooms can live on kerosene, brake fluid, lubricating oil, can corrode glass, wood, iron.
Mushrooms work great mischief to food and agricultural production.
For example, the microscopic parasitic fungus called in the people by potato decay in 1864 almost completely ruined potatoes harvest in Ireland. Only the fields located near copper-smelting plants were not damaged. It became clear that the fungus perishes from compounds of copper and sulfur that was an incitement in use of copper in fight against agricultural wreckers and diseases. One of such means - all the known bordeaux liquid.
Here such few facts from life of microscopic mushrooms set thinking on their role in harmonious existence of all live on our planet. Whether they will become allies of the person in fight for preservation of life on Earth?