Who is considered as the founder of a neuropsychology? Alexander Luriya ofin a family of the Kazan doctor was born on July 16, 1902 the boy who later made many years a huge contribution to domestic psychology and medicine - Alexander Romanovich Luriya. This is the scientist with a world name who gained world recognition still during lifetime. Its works are still published in the different countries. Luriya is the most quoted Russian psychologist abroad.
Even during study at the Kazan university Alexander was fond of psychology. In 1921 he created psychoanalytic society and reported about it to Siegmund Freud. In reply the letter - a congratulation which the young scientist stored many years came. After a while he will begin to be engaged in the new direction and will become one of creators culturally - the historical theory of the highest mental functions of the person. But his father, the therapist, famous in Kazan, did not share hobbies of the son. Only when that graduated 1 - y from the Moscow medical institute in 1937, the father calmed down: at last the son was engaged in serious business.
The sphere of scientific interests of Alexander Luriya can be listed very long. Result of work - more than 500 scientific works. He developed the theory of localization of the highest mental functions, the principle of dynamic localization of mental processes. Many works were devoted to violations of the speech, memory, a role of frontal lobes of a brain. It worked in the sphere of children`s psychology, defectology, psychophysiology, psycholinguistics. It described the basic principles and a conceptual framework of a neuropsychology which was allocated in the separate scientific direction subsequently. Methods of neuropsychological diagnostics are still used by neuropsychologists and doctors around the world. Them and call - “luriyevsky methods“, and the Russian neuropsychology - luriyevsky.
Except works on psychology, the scientist together with colleagues made developments of the device on the basis of which the polygraph (lie detector) was created subsequently. It had an opportunity to communicate with suspects of serious crimes at the Moscow provincial prosecutor`s office. He wrote about what the condition of the motor sphere precisely reflects nervously - a mental condition of the person. It allowed to find the real criminal quicker.
In the first days of the Great Patriotic War of Luriya it was appointed the head of neurosurgical hospital in the settlement of Kisegach in Chelyabinsk region. He was engaged not only treatment of patients, but also saw off scientifically - research work. In hospital there were many wounded with defeat of the central nervous system. As a result of wounds and injuries of the head of patients there were violations of some mental functions - speeches, perceptions, thinking, memory. Doctors developed the basic principles of neurorehabilitation of patients with head injuries. Work therapy was one of the directions of rehabilitation.
Luriya was engaged scientifically - research and pedagogical activity. Since 1945 and until the end of life he taught in MSU and other higher education institutions. The scientific authority of Alexander Luriya was recognized also at the international level. It was an honorary member of many societies, associations, the honourable doctor of universities in Brussels, Leystere, Lublin, Nijmegen, Tampere. Its works admit still and published in many countries of the world.
The director Christopher Doyli shot the movie “Words Are Excessive“ about the person with an infallible memory. He said that on creation of the movie he was inspired by Luriya`s book “The small book about big memory“. Once to Luriya the patient Shereshevsky who possessed an infallible memory came to reception. It turned out that the volume of his memory is almost unlimited. But thanks to what there was a storing? Each word caused in it a certain image which remained a long time. Studying memory mechanisms, the scientist made also other discoveries. The most amazing was that the perception of the outside world at this person strongly differed from ordinary people. For example, Shereshevsky spoke to Vygotsky: “What yellow and friable voice at you“. It means that it showed a sinesteziya phenomenon - the perception phenomena at which the irritation of one sense organ causes the feelings corresponding to other body. In this way the world was perceived also by some creative persons, for example, the composer Scriabin.
The scientist`s daughter, Elena Aleksandrovna Luriya, noted that they were connected by deep attachment. About the father she wrote the book “My father A. R. Luriya“. It could leave behind school of sciences. It had many pupils who continue to work in this direction. Now in the world a large number of neuropsychologists follows Luriya`s principles. From time to time in Russia the scientific conferences devoted to Alexander Luriya, whose rich scientific heritage actually and today are also abroad held.